Srinagarind Medical Journal 2021-04-07T13:37:51+07:00 Pote Sriboonlue Open Journal Systems <p>Frequency : in every&nbsp;two months; on February, April, June, August, October&nbsp;and December. Policy is to encourage distribution of scientific information in medical and health sciences. It publishes seven types of article; medical innovation, original article, case report, review article, conference, symposium and letter to editor.</p> Chest Wall Thickness at a Proper Area for Insertion of Intercostal Chest Drainage 2021-04-05T16:27:00+07:00 Phati Angkasith Panu Teeratakulpisarn Chaiyut Thanapaisal Narongchai Wongkonkitsin <p><strong><u>Background and objectives:</u></strong> Nowadays, the areas for insertion of tube thoracostomy are mostly applied in the safety triangle area (lateral border of pectoralis major muscle, anterior border of latissimus dorsi muscle and the nipple line). The thicker chest wall may contribute to difficult tube thoracostomy insertion. So, cadaveric chest walls are measured for thickness to confirm appropriateness of safety triangle.</p> <p><strong><u>Methods:</u></strong> The fresh cadaveric chest wall was measured by the needle tapping the chest wall within the safety triangle combined with sternotomy to determine the thinnest area of the chest wall. The measured values are recorded in millimeters (mm.). The mean thickness of the chest wall, standard deviation (SD), BMI of the cadaver before preparation were studied</p> <p><strong><u>Results:</u></strong> The 20 fresh cadaveric chest walls were measured for thickness. The mean chest wall thickness within the safety triangle varies between 14.4 mm. to 23.9 mm. The areas with more than 50 mm thickness were mostly found in the mid-axillary line and two cases (54 and 56 mm.) in the 3<sup>rd</sup> intercostal space crossing with anterior axillary line. While the thinnest areas (14.4 mm.) are found within 7<sup>th</sup> intercostal space. Most female cadavers have thicker chest wall than male.</p> <p><strong><u>Conclusion:</u></strong> Some areas in the safety triangle for tube thoracostomy insertion are more than 50 mm. in thickness. The area for insertion of the tube thoracostomy should be carefully selected, especially in woman and the obese patients. Moreover, insertion below 6<sup>th</sup> intercostal space should be avoided due to risk of peritoneal penetration.</p> 2021-04-05T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) Factors Affecting Abnormal CT Scan in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury – High-Risk Patients 2021-04-07T08:39:04+07:00 Panu Teeratakulpisarn Phati Angkasith Parichat Tanmit Thanakorn Wannakul Chaiyut Thanapaisal <p><strong><u>Background and Objective</u></strong><strong><u>:</u></strong> Traumatic brain injury is one of the most significant problems worldwide. Major causes of head injury are caused by traffic accidents and fallings. In mild traumatic brain injury, consider that there are risk factors for abnormalities in the brain. However, there is a lack of study in risk factors for neurosurgical intervention related to abnormal CT findings in Thai people.</p> <p><strong><u>Method</u></strong><strong><u>:</u></strong> Retrospective descriptive study in the patients diagnosed mild traumatic injury (GCS 13-15), with high risk for abnormalities in CT scan. The outcome of the study is to admeasure the ratio of abnormal CT findings and to determine factors that affected abnormal CT findings.</p> <p><strong><u>Results</u></strong><u>:</u> There were 117 mild traumatic brain injury – high-risk patients performed a CT scan. Of those, 41 patients (35%) had abnormal CT findings. Two significant factors affecting abnormal CT findings; GCS 13-14 after observation and signs of open/base of skull fractures with a number of 5 (p£0.011) and 5 (p=0.037), respectively.</p> <p><strong><u>Conclusion</u></strong><strong><u>:</u></strong> Open skull or base of skull fracture and GCS of 13-14 observation were the most two strongest predictors for abnormal CT scan in mild traumatic brain injury – high-risk patients.</p> 2021-04-07T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) Association of Meteorological Data to Incident of Cardiovascular Disease 2021-04-07T08:49:03+07:00 Songsak Kiatchoosakun Supatcha Prasertcharoensuk Udomlack Peansukwech Sirirat Anutrakulchai <p><strong><u>Background and Objectives</u></strong>: Cardiovascular disease (CVDs) is the leading cause of death worldwide. The risks of developing chronic diseases are attributed to both genetic and environmental factors. The aim of this research was to assess and report on correlation between cardiovascular disease and environment.</p> <p><strong><u>Methods</u></strong>: This retrospective study evaluated meteorological data from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, version 2 (MERRA-2) along with monthly new CVDs cases in Thailand from Health Data Center (HDC) v 4.0 approved by the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) during January 1, 2013 to December 31,2017.</p> <p><strong><u>Results</u></strong>: Monthly mean values of new CVDs cases in Thailand from January 1, 2013 through December 31, 2017 display increasing trends over time with mean 1990 cases/month. By the time series model, only 3 factors related with new CVDs cases significantly including temperature, surface pressure, and humidity.</p> <p><strong><u>Conclusion</u></strong>: Meteorological data like temperature, atmosphere pressure and humidity has effect to CVDs event.</p> 2021-04-07T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) Effect of Hesperidin on Memory Impairments Induced by Valproic acid in Rats 2021-04-07T09:10:00+07:00 Soraya Kaewngam Tanaporn Anosri Ram Prajit Kornrawee Suwannakot Nataya Sritawan Anusara Aranarochana Apiwat Sirichoat1 Wanassanan Pannangrong Jariya Umka Welbat <p><strong><u>Background and objective:</u></strong> Decreasing of neurogenesis in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) in the hippocampus is linked to memory deficits. In animal studies, treatment with valproic acid (VPA) impairs neurogenesis in the SGZ resulting in memory impairment. Hesperidin (Hsd), a plant flavanone, is a natural extract, which enhances learning and memory. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Hsd on memory impairment in rats induced by VPA.</p> <p><strong><u>Methods:</u></strong> Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (6 animals/group) including vehicle, VPA, Hsd and VPA+Hsd groups. VPA (300 mg/kg) was administrated by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection twice daily for 14 days. Hsd (100 mg/kg/day) was administrated by oral gavage once a day for 21 days. Body weight was weighed and recorded every day. Three days after the treatment, rats were tested for memory using the novel object location (NOL) and novel object recognition (NOR) tests.</p> <p><strong><u>Results:</u></strong> The results showed that the body weight and total exploration time were not significantly different among groups in both NOL and NOR tests (p&gt;0.05). In the NOL test, rats in the vehicle, Hsd and VPA+Hsd groups could significantly discriminate between the novel and familiar locations (p&lt;0.05). In the NOR test, similarly, rats in the vehicle, Hsd and VPA+Hsd groups could significantly discriminate between the novel and familiar objects (p&lt;0.05). In contrast, rats in the VPA group could not significantly performed in both tests.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study demonstrates that hesperidin could improve the memory impairments induced by valproic acid.</p> 2021-04-07T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) The Performance of the Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging using Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Measurement in Detecting Malignant Liver Lesions 2021-04-07T13:37:47+07:00 Julaluck Promsorn Praewpan Na-udom Panita Limpawattana Nittaya Chamadol Kulyada Somsap Muckesh Harisinghani <p><strong><u>&nbsp;</u></strong><strong><u>Background and </u></strong><strong><u>Objective</u></strong><strong><u>:</u></strong> ADC (Apparent diffusion coefficient) &nbsp;values have been shown to be helpful for liver lesion characterization. There are; however, discrepancies in the ADC values and controversies regarding the optimal cutoff ADC values to differentiates malignant from benign liver lesions. The purpose of this study was to measure ADC values of malignant liver lesions and to identify the optimal cutoff ADC value to differentiate malignant from benign liver lesions.</p> <p><strong><u>Material and Methods</u></strong><strong><u>:</u></strong> A retrospective study of 180 MRI (Magnetic resonance imaging) of liver during June 1, 2012 to December 31, 2014. ADC value was measured and compared between benign and malignant liver lesions. The optimal ADC value to differentiated between malignant and benign liver lesions was calculated.</p> <p><strong><u>Results</u></strong><strong><u>:</u></strong> Seventy-nine malignant liver lesions included 52 CCAs, 20 HCCs, 7 liver metastases had median ADC value 1.06x10<sup>-</sup><sup>3</sup> mm<sup>2</sup>/sec. 101 benign liver lesions included 44 hemangiomas, 11 FNHs, 7 hepatic adenomas and 39 cysts had median ADC value 1.93x10<sup>-</sup><sup>3</sup> mm<sup>2</sup>/sec. The differences between the median ADC values of malignant liver lesions (1.06x10<sup>-</sup><sup>3</sup> mm<sup>2</sup>/sec) and benign liver lesions (1.93x10<sup>-</sup><sup>3</sup> mm<sup>2</sup>/sec) was statistically significant (p&lt;0.05). The ADC value of <u>&lt;</u>1.49x10<sup>-</sup><sup>3</sup> mm<sup>2</sup>/sec was the optimal cut-off values to indicate malignant liver mass with the sensitivity of 84.8%, specificity of 81.2%.</p> <p><strong><u>Conclusion</u></strong><strong><u>:</u></strong> ADC value is useful for differentiating malignant from benign liver lesions with1.49x10<sup>-</sup><sup>3</sup> mm<sup>2</sup>/s as optimal cutoff ADC value.</p> 2021-04-07T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Effectiveness of Elderly Capacity Development Activity for Promoting Health Behaviors among Elderly in Ban Nonkheng, Khumkwang Sub-district, Warin Chamrap District, Ubon Ratchathani Province 2021-04-07T13:37:48+07:00 Mintra Sararuk Thitirat Nganchamung Nantaya Krasuaythong <p><strong><u>Background and Objective</u></strong><u>:</u> Organizing activities in promoting health in 6 aspects as follow: 1) Health responsibility 2) Physical activity 3) Spiritual growth 4) Interpersonal relations 5) Stress management&nbsp; and 6) Nutrition and promoting mental health including good health behaviors could affect the good health of the elderly.&nbsp; This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of elderly capacity and development activities for promoting health behaviors among elderly in Ban Nonkheng vilage, Khumkwang sub-district, Warin Chamrap district, Ubon Ratchathani province.</p> <p><strong><u>Method</u></strong><u>:</u> The study was quasi-experimental research. Total of 37 elderly were recruited by the purposive sampling. The study contained 4 activities, such as educating about self -care, physical activity, meditation, healthy elderly contests, healthy food cooking practice. Data were collected by using an interview for health behaviors (Cronbach’s coefficient =0.79) and Thai geriatric mental health assessment tool. Data analysis, descriptive statistics were used such as percentage, mean and standard deviation. Paired t-tests was used at the statistical significance level of 0.05 to compare the difference in health behaviors score and mental health score before- and after participating in the activity.</p> <p><strong><u>Results</u></strong><u>:</u>&nbsp; Results revealed that after joined the activities, health behaviors and mental health mean scores of the elderly statistically significantly increased compared to those before joined the activities (p &lt;0.001). Before participating in the activity the elderly had Interpersonal relations&nbsp; with the highest mean score of 26.38 (±3.96), the health behaviors with the highest average scores was eating 3 meals in 1 day and after participating in activities, mean health behavior scores were significantly increase in all aspects. Before participating, the elderly had mental health condition equal to 58.6% of the general population. After the activities, it was found that the elderly had the highest level of satisfaction.</p> <p><strong><u>Conclusion</u></strong><u>:</u>&nbsp; The findings indicated that the elderly capacity development activities had the effectiveness to increase health behaviors and mental health in the elderly. Therefore the activities should be provided continually to the elderly and the activities also could be applied to elderly in other areas in order to enhance better health behaviors.</p> 2021-04-07T09:59:52+07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Srinagarind Medical Journal Improvement Quality of Life in Patients with Cleft Lip and Palate by Home Visit Program 2021-04-07T10:14:57+07:00 Yupin Pakkasung Waranya Sroyhin Suntaree Numjaitaharn Daungkaew Rod-ong Chanatiporn Chonprai Hattakorn Samretdee Watcharapong Jaruensook Poonsak Pisek Palakorn Surakunprapha <p><strong><u>Background and Objective:</u></strong> Cleft lip and cleft palate patients require long-term treatment, rehabilitation, and follow-up. Some patients lack follow-up treatment. Therefore, a multidisciplinary home visit will be performed to assess the problems and outcomes of the treatment to improve the quality of life of the patients.</p> <p><strong><u>Method:</u></strong> A descriptive study was used following the eight-time home visit to a total of 20 patients. The participants underwent different sets of questions; 37 items for Community-Based Rehabilitation, 82 items for life skill testing, and other 9 parts for Social Diagnosis and Management Assessment. Data collection was conducted via an interview that lasted for 45 minutes and review patients’ record form. The data collection took 1 month on February, 2020. Content analysis and percentile were used for data interpretation.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><u>Results:</u></strong> Twenty patients (13 males, 7 females) age between 12-18 years old enrolled in this interview. Nine patients scored highest for physical health. All cases received standard education. Nineteen patients expressed interests in participating the aptitude skills and occupational counseling. Only 9 patients interested in the skills of emotional and stress management. Thirteen patients scored normal in analytic thinking. Ten patients scored normal in relationship building and communication. Twelve patients scored normal in decision making and problem solving. Self-awareness has the lowest score in all cases. Social management aspect reveals patients were poor and did not have the supporting resources.</p> <p><strong><u>Conclusion</u></strong><u>:</u> Most participants were in good health and quite poor. The patients need the trainings on job and self—actualization.</p> 2021-04-07T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) Prevalence and Clinical Features of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Thai Adolescents 2021-04-07T10:34:49+07:00 Benjarut Suwan Nuntasiri Eamudomkarn Srinaree Kaewrudee Woraluck Somboonporn Sukree Soontrapa Jen Sothornwit Suteeraporn Chaowattanapanit Phuangphaka Sadee <p><strong><u>Background and objective:</u></strong> This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and clinical features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) among high school-age Thai adolescents in Khon Kaen.</p> <p><strong><u>Materials and Methods:</u></strong> This was a cross sectional study in which 385 adolescents aged 15 to 18 years were enrolled<strong>. </strong>The diagnosis of PCOS was made according to the criteria issued by the International Consortium of Pediatric Endocrinology (ICPE).</p> <p><strong><u>Results:</u></strong> The prevalence of PCOS among participants was1.81%. Oligomenorrhea was the most common form of abnormal menstruation among participants with PCOS. Of the seven participants with PCOS, five had evidence of clinical hyperandrogenism according to their modified Ferriman-Gallwey scores, and two were noted as having clinical hyperandrogenism based on the presence of moderate acne vulgaris. Five of the seven participants with PCOS were found to have biochemical hyperandrogenism.</p> <p><strong><u>Conclusion:</u></strong> The prevalence of PCOS in the present study was 1.81%. The most common abnormal menstruation pattern among the patients with PCOS was oligomenorrhea. Clinical hyperandrogenism was noted in the majority of cases.</p> 2021-04-07T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) A Study on Care of Infants with Cleft Lip – Palate in the Labor Room, Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen province, Thailand 2021-04-07T10:45:32+07:00 Nittaya Panphet Sukanya Kreetiyutanont Suteera Pradubwong Bowornsilp Chowchuen <p><strong><u>Background and Objectives</u></strong>: Cleft lip and palate is an anomaly that can severely traumatize both the mother and child’s mental health, a topic which is of interest about incidents, diagnosis, and nursing &nbsp;activity&nbsp; &nbsp;to the researchers.</p> <p><strong><u>Method</u></strong><strong>s</strong>: &nbsp;This was a descriptive research was employed in conveying the conditions of infants with cleft lip and palate who were attended &nbsp;the Labor room at Srinagarind hospital, Khon Kaen University. The collected data was divided into four parts: 1) baseline characteristics, 2) associated factors and diagnosis, 3) pregnancy outcomes, and 4) nursing activity. Data were collected from the medical record, birth records, and nursing &nbsp;activity record period between January, 2019 to March, 2019. Statistics used for data analysis included frequency, percentile, and qualitative analysis.</p> <p><strong><u>Results</u></strong>: There was a total of 35 cases during the study period, aged 20-34 years old (82.86%), residing in Khon Kaen (48.5%). A twenty-five pregnant women (71.43%) were attended both antenatal care at Srinagarind hospital and other hospitals, There was a complicated during pregnancy (37.14%) and &nbsp;had been diagnosed with an abnormality during antenatal period (88.57%). The majority of the women had delivery at 37-42 weeks (65.72%), with birth weight of the infant more than 3,000 grams (31.42%) and an APGAR score at 1 minute ranging from 8-10 points (48.58%). The newborns were diagnosed cleft lip with Unilateral or bilateral cleft palate (62.86%), and eleven newborns had other anomalies and were terminated.</p> <p><strong><u>Conclusion</u></strong>: All pregnant women in this study were detected cleft lip and palate-by ultrasound. Twenty-four cases were live births and eleven cases were death by medical abortion. The mothers and infants were provided care based on standard.</p> 2021-04-07T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) The Effect of the Jigsaw Cooperative Learning Technique on Mean scores for Learning about Irrigation Procedures among Second Year Nursing Students 2021-04-07T10:59:23+07:00 Arunrat Uthaisang Khunphitha Junsevg Nuttiya Pommasaka Na Sakonnakhon Amornrat Sangsaikaew <p><strong><u>Background and Objectives:</u></strong> The jigsaw cooperative learning technique can encourage all learners to participate in the study. The purpose of this study was to compare the mean scores of the students’learning achievement before and after using the jigsaw cooperative learning technique to aid student learning about irrigation procedures<strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong><u>Methods:</u></strong>&nbsp; A quasi-experimental research approach was used. The population consisted of 146 second year nursing students who were selected through a purposive sampling method. The research instruments were the average score and a satisfaction evaluation form. Data were analyzed by paired t-test.</p> <p><strong><u>Results:</u></strong> It was found that the students’ knowledge after using the jigsaw cooperative learning technique on irrigation procedures was significantly higher than before at the .01 level. In addition, the students’ satisfaction was at the highest level.</p> <p><strong><u>Conclusion:</u></strong><strong>&nbsp;</strong> The jigsaw cooperative learning technique can be successfully used to improve the level of student knowledge.</p> 2021-04-07T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) ความชุกและปัจจัยที่มีความสัมพันธ์กับภาวะซึมเศร้าในนักศึกษาแพทย์ชั้นคลินิกของคณะแพทยศาสตร์แห่งหนึ่งในภาคตะวันออกเฉียงเหนือของประเทศไทย 2021-04-07T11:04:10+07:00 Sriarpa Auchayasawat <p><strong><u>Background and Objective</u></strong><strong><u>:</u></strong> Depression is a primary significant cause of the disability. The clinical medical students &nbsp;must &nbsp;work on ward other than studying in lecture section, resulting in both physical and mental stress. This research aimed to study the prevalence and factors associated with depression among the clinical medical students.</p> <p><strong><u>Methods</u></strong><strong><u>:</u></strong> A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. The questionnaire consisted of general basic information and depression assessed by 2 Questions (2Q) for screening and 9 Questions (9Q) for assessed depressive symptom.&nbsp; The electronic questionnaires were sent to all of 133 clinical medical students in the period of 1 – 31 July 2019. The data was analyzed using &nbsp;SPSS Statistics version 22. The descriptive statistics consisting of number, percentage, maximum, minimum, mean, standard deviation, median and interquartile range. Analytical statistics consisting of Chi-square and Fisher’s exact test. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong><u>Results</u></strong><strong><u>:</u></strong> There were 92 partcipants. The prevalence of depression was found in 36 persons (39.1%; 95%CI 29.1- 49.9). Most of the clinical medical students had mild depression for 22 persons (23.9%). The factor associated with depression was the dropout clinical medical studens (p-value = 0.043).</p> <p><strong><u>Conclusion</u></strong><strong><u>:</u></strong> One third of clinical medical students were depression. Suggest to screening and monitoring of depression in the clinical medical students particularly in the dropout clinical medical studens.</p> 2021-04-07T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) Factor Associated with Competency of Nurse Anesthetists to Assist Anesthesiologist in Performing Peripheral Nerve Block 2021-04-07T11:11:21+07:00 Rongrong Rueangchira-urai Somrutai Boonchuduang Wisara Woraathasin Maliwan Oofuvong <p><strong><u>Background and objective</u></strong><strong>:</strong> Competencies of knowledge, skill, and attitudes of nurse anesthetists may influence on successfulness of peripheral nerve block done by anesthesiologists. This study is to determine factors associated with competencies of nurse anesthetists assisting anesthesiologist in peripheral nerve block procedure.</p> <p><strong><u>Methods:</u></strong> This was a prospective cohort study at Songklanagarind hospital. All nurse anesthetists were initially received pretest (knowledge and skill) for assisting in peripheral nerve block procedure before underwent for ultrasound training (one-hour lecture and 20 minutes workshop). The posttests consisting of 3 categories (knowledge, skill and attitude) were evaluated 2 months after training. Then the pretest and posttest scores were compared as well as the factors associated with posttest score for each category was performed. P &lt; 0.05 was considered statistically significant.</p> <p><strong><u>Results:</u></strong> The response rate was 87% (55/63). The mean age of participants was 33.09 <u>+ </u>9.55 years. Posttest scores regarding knowledge, and skill were significantly higher than pretest score (p&lt;0.001). Factor associated with higher knowledge of nurse anesthetists was younger age and longer years of working experience (p = 0.01). Factors associated with higher skill of nurse anesthetists was master degree of graduation (compared with bachelor degree) (p = 0.002).</p> <p><strong><u>Conclusion:</u></strong> A comprehensive ultrasound training in conjunction with younger age but longer years of working experience of nurse anesthetist are significant factors associated with knowledge competency in nurse anesthetists whereas higher degree of graduation is significant factor associated with skill competency in nurse anesthetists assisting anesthesiologist to perform peripheral nerve block.</p> 2021-04-07T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) Medical Model Making for Peritoneal Dialysis 2021-04-07T11:21:06+07:00 Piyanat Sudee Kan Komany Songpol U-Pachitakul Dodsadee Musikpodok Ornuma Penreabroy <p><strong><u>Background and Objective</u></strong>: The model is built to simulate or duplicate a real object using renewable materials in 3D. It shows details of different structures and components. Not only making the learning process easier, but also the model can be studied all the time. The model helps to learn practically to earn skills. Medical models are therefore another alternative and used as an example of clinical practice in teaching, study, medical treatment and services. Especially chronic kidney disease patients who require experts in patient care. It is necessary to bring the model for training before taking care of patients.</p> <p><strong><u>Methods</u></strong>: This study was a developmental research. 30 volunteers from relatives, caregivers of patients and peritoneal dialysis nursing instructors were the experimental groups. The study instruments were the model for demonstrating peritoneal dialysis and satisfaction questionnaires. Statistic measures for data analysis were percentage and mean.</p> <p><strong><u>Results</u></strong>: A quality of the demonstrating peritoneal dialysis model could be used to test the peritoneal dialysis process. The experimental groups learned and understood practically and had a high level of satisfaction at 4.3.</p> <p><strong><u>Conclusion</u></strong>: The experimental groups were able to learn to understand and practically use of the dialysis demonstration by using the model. Carried out on their own.</p> 2021-04-07T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) Association between Lesions of Cancer and Survival of Colorectal Cancer (CRC) Patients after Diagnosis at Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital, Nakhon Ratchasima Province 2021-04-07T11:33:38+07:00 Kanokphan Phansranoi Supot Kamsa-ard Nut Boonnithi Nintita Sripaiboonkij Thokanit Naowarat Maneenin <p><strong><u>Background and Objective</u></strong><u>:</u> In previous studies there were conversely in survival rate of the sides of colorectal cancer (CRC). Differences in the survival rate for CRC have been observed among the left-sided and right-sided tumors, with further regional variation. There was inconsistency in survival rate varies by regions. The objective of this study was to compare the survival rate between left and right-sided tumors after diagnosis of CRC patients at Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima hospital, Nakhon Ratchasima province.</p> <p><strong><u>Methods:</u></strong> Data (2,096 cases) were collected from the Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima hospital-based cancer registry (2014-2018) in Nakhon Ratchasima province. The survival rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Between group compassions were made using the Log rank test. We reported the median survival time and 95% confidence interval.</p> <p><strong><u>Result:</u></strong> Of 2,096 CRC patients, 1,209 died during the study period, corresponding to a case-fatality rate of 31.4 per 100 person-years (95%CI: 29.6-33.1). The median survival time was 1.95 years. (95%CI: 1.77-2.12). The overall survival rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 66.6% (95%CI: 64.5-68.5), 39.3% (95%CI; 37.0-41.5), and 30.3% (95%CI; 27.7-32.8), respectively.&nbsp; The survival rate between the left and right-sided tumors was not significantly different (Log rank test = 0.59, p=0.444).</p> <p><strong><u>Conclusion:</u></strong> The survival rate between right- and left-sided CRC lesions was not significantly different. The 5-year survival rate is poor; consequently, primary prevention is crucial and screening for early detection is necessary to improve survival rate. Further research should focus on the factors affecting survival of CRC.</p> 2021-04-07T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) Cyclin Dependent Kinases 4/6 Inhibitors: A New Hope for Breast Cancer Therapy 2021-04-07T11:43:35+07:00 Charupong Saengboonmee Thanachai Sanlung Sopit Wongkham <p>The limitless of self-renewal and replication of cancer cells, one of cancer hallmarks, is supported by various molecular mechanisms. Overexpression of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases, a group of cell cycle machinery proteins, is one of the underlying mechanisms that promotes cell proliferation in several cancers, especially in breast cancer.&nbsp; Breast cancer is the highest prevalent cancer among female patients in Thailand and globally. Many studies revealed the overexpression of cyclin D1, a partner of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6), in more than 30% of breast cancer cases. These proteins are indicated to be essential for survival of breast cancer cells but are disputable for normal mammary cells. These findings, thus, led to the development of CDK4/6 inhibitors which arrest the cell cycle at G1 phase and inhibit cell division. These inhibitors have been tested for their efficacy both preclinical studies in breast cancer cells and clinical trials in breast cancer patients. Patients who supplemented with these drugs had almost double longer survival times compared with those who received the placebo. The efficiency of CDK4/6 inhibitors, hence, urged the approval and implementation of the CDK4/6 inhibitors into the clinical practice. The discovery of CDK4/6 inhibitors is one of the successful translations of basic medical research to the clinical study which finally implemented in the clinical practice of breast cancer treatment at present.</p> 2021-04-07T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) Alternative Access Sites for Abdominal Entry in Gynecologic Laparoscopy: A Literature Review and Narrative Summary of Findings 2021-04-07T11:51:20+07:00 Nuntasiri Eamudomkarn Sanguanchoke Luanratanakorn Kanok Seejorn <p>The periumbilical area is the typical site for initial abdominal entry during gynecologic laparoscopy. Placing a gas insufflation needle and primary trocar through the umbilicus, however, is deemed hazardous in cases in which there is a risk of peritoneal and visceral adhesions to the umbilical region. Common alternative sites for an abdominal entry during gynecologic laparoscopy are Palmer’s point, which is located in the left upper quadrant 3 cm below the costal margin in the midclavicular line, and the Lee-Huang point, which is located at the midline between the umbilicus and sternal xiphoid process. Available evidence has shown both of these points to be both feasible and safe as the initial entry site during gynecologic laparoscopy. Other alternative access sites include the subcostal margin in the midclavicular line and the left ninth or tenth intercostal space. Recently, new laparoscopic entry sites (i.e., Jain point and Latif’s point) have been proposed for cases in which there is suspected adhesion due to previous surgery. Further studies, however, are needed to verify the safety and feasibility of these entry techniques.</p> 2021-04-07T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) Health Education 2021-04-07T13:37:36+07:00 Pat Nonjui <p>Health education is an essential component for health promotion and prevention of disease, especially in non-communicable diseases. The aim of health education is to encourage people to change behavior to be healthier. Health care providers should know and understand the fundamentals of health education, related theories, and development of using technology in health education. Then, they will have an ability to provide health education in an area of services to promote health in the population.</p> 2021-04-07T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c)