Systematics of the Thai Calophyllaceae and Hypericaceae with comments on the Kielmeyeroidae (Clusiaceae)


  • Caroline Byrne Former research student in TCD
  • John Adrian Naicker Parnell Botany Department, Trinity Centre for Biodiversity Research, School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin
  • Kongkanda Chayamarit Office of the Forest Herbarium Department of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation, Chatuchak, Bangkok



Guttiferae, Flora of Thailand.


The Calophyllaceae and Hypericaceae are revised for Thailand and their relationships to the Clusiaceae and Guttiferae are briefly discussed. Thirty-two species are definitively recognised in six genera, namely: Calophyllum L., Kayea Wall., Mammea L. and Mesua L. in the Calophyllaceae and Cratoxylum Blume. and Hypericum L. in the Hypericaceae. A further four species of Calophyllum are tentatively noted as likely to occur in Thailand. Descriptions, full synonyms relevant to the Thai taxa, distribution maps, ecology, phenology, vernacular names, specimens examined and provisional keys are given. All species previously classified in the genus Mesua have been moved to the genus Kayea, except Mesua ferrea L. Two taxa were found to be endemic to Thailand: Mammea harmandii (Pierre) Kosterm. and Hypericum siamense N.Robson. The distribution for the families in Thailand was found to vary with the Thai Calophyllaceae being found mainly in Central and Peninsular Thailand whilst the Thai Hypericaceae were found mainly in the North and the North-East of Thailand. Overall the numbers of collections housed in herbaria are few and more collections are necessary in order to give a comprehensive account of their distributions in Thailand.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

John Adrian Naicker Parnell, Botany Department, Trinity Centre for Biodiversity Research, School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin

Professor of Systematic Botany,
Herbarium, Editorial Board  
Botany Department, Trinity Centre for Biodiversity Research, School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin


APG II (2003). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants. APG II. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 399–436.

APG III (2009). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants. APG III. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161: 105–121.

APG IV (2016). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 1–20.

Bartholomew, B., Nicolson, D.H. & Nordenstam, B. (1997). Author citation of Thunberg’s new species in Murray’s “Systema vegetabilium,” ed. 14. Taxon 46: 311–314.

Chase, M.W., Soltis, D.E., Olmstead, R.G., Morgan, D., Les, D.H., Mishler, B.D., Duvall, M.R., Price, R.A., Hills, H.G., Qiu, Y.L., Kron, K.A., Rettig, J.H., Conti, E., Palmer, J.D., Manhart, J.R., Sytsma, K.J., Michael, H.J., Kress, W.J., Karol, K.A., Clark, W.D., Hedrén, M., Gaut, B.S., Jansen, R.K., Kim, K.J., Wimpee, C.F., Smith, J.F., Furnier, G.R., Strauss, S.H., Xiang, Q.Y., Plunkett, G.M., Soltis, P.S., Swensen, S.M., Williams, S.E., Gadek, P.A., Quinn, C.J., Eguiarte, L.E., Golenberg, E., Learn, G.H., Graham, S.W. Jr., Barrett, S.C.H., Dayananden, S. & Albert, V.A. (1993). Phylogenetics of seed plants: an analysis of nucleotide sequences from the plastid gene rbcL. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 80: 528–580.

D’Arcy, W.G. (1980). Family 123. Guttiferae. In: R.E. Woodson & R.W. Schery and collaborators, Flora of Panama. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens 67: 969–1043.

Davis, C.C. & Chase, M.W. (2004). Elatinaceae are sister to Malpighiaceae: Peridiscaceae belong to Saxifragales. American Journal of Botany 91: 262–273.

Davis, C.C., Webb, C.O., Wurdack, K.J., Jaramillo, C.A. & Donoghue, M.J. (2005). Explosive radiation of the Malpighiales supports a Mid-Cretaceous origin of Modern Tropical Rain Forests. American Naturalist 165: E36–E65.
Frohne, D. & Pfänder, H.J. (2005). Poisonous Plants: A Handbook for Doctors, Pharmacists, Toxicologists, Biologists & Veterinarians. Timber Press, Portland, 488 pp.

Gardner, S., Sidisunthorn, P. & Chayamarit, K. (2015). Forest Trees of Southern Thailand. Vol. 1. The Forest Herbarium, Bangkok and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 748+1 pp.

Gogelein, A.J.F. (1967). A revision of the genus Cratoxylum. Blumea 15: 453–475.

Heywood, V.H., Brummit, R.K., Culham, A. & Seberg, O. (2007). Flowering Plant Families of the World. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 424 pp.

ICRAF. World Agroforestry Centre. (2008). Accessed 8th April 2008.

________.(2017). The Agroforestree Database. Mesua ferrea. Accessed July 2017.

Jarvis, C.V. (2007). Order out of Chaos. Linnean plant names and their types. Linnean Society of London and the Natural History Museum, London, 1017 pp.

Kato, M. (2004). Taxonomic studies of Podostemaceae of Thailand. 1. Hydrobryum and related genera with crustaceous roots (Subfamily Podostemoi-deae). Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 55: 133–165.
Kochummen, K.M. (1973). Hypericaceae. In: T.C. Whitmore, Tree Flora of Malaya, pp. 248–252. Longman, Kuala Lumpur & Singapore.

Koi, S., Imaichi, R. & Kato, M. (2005). Endogenous leaf initiation in the apical-meristemless shoot of Cladopus queenslandicus (Podostemaceae) and implications for evolution of shoot Morphology. International Journal of Plant Science 166: 199–206.

Kubitzki, K., Mesquita, A.A.L. & Gottlieb, O.R. (1978). Chemosystematic implications of xanthones in Bonnetia and Archytaea. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 6: 185–187.

Li, Xiwen, Li. Jie & Stevens, P.F. (2007). Clusiaceae (Guttiferae). In Flora of China 13: 37–38. Science Press, Beijing & Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.

Lord, T., Armitage, J., Cubey, J., Grant, M. & Whitehouse, C. (2004). RHS Plant Finder 2004–2005. Dorling Kindersley, London, 956 pp.

Mabberley, D.J, (2017). Mabberley’s Plant Book. Cambridge University Press, Cambridtge, 1102 pp.

Maheswari, J.K. (1963). Taxonomic studies on Indian Guttiferae II. The genus Mesua Linn. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 5: 335–343.

Merrill, E.D. (1916). Osbeck’s Dagbok öfwer en Ostindsk Resa. American Journal of Botany 3: 580–588.
MTC. Malaysian Timber Council (2017). Resources forestry and sustainability. Derum. Accessed 9 July 2017.

Parnell, J. A. N., Simpson, D. A., Moat, J., Kirkup, D. W., Chantaranothai, P., Boyce, P. C., Bygrave, P., Dransfield, S., Jebb, M. H. P., Macklin, J., Meade, C., Middleton, D. J., Muasya, A. M., Prajaksood, A., Pendry, C. A., Pooma, R., Suddee, S. and Wilkin, P. (2003). Plant collecting spread and densities: their potential impact on biogeographical studies in Thailand. Journal of Biogeography 30: 193–209.

Robson, N.K.B. (1985). Studies in the genus Hypericum L. (Guttiferae) 3. Sections 1. Campylosporus to 6a. Umbraculoides. Bulletin of the British Museum Natural History (Botany) 12: 163–235.

________. (1990). Studies in the genus Hypericum L. (Guttiferae) 8. Sections 29. Brathys (part 2) and 30. Trigynobrathys. Bulletin of the British Museum Natural History (Botany) 20: 1–151.

Robson, H.B.K., Carine, M., Pattinson, D. Nurk, N., Crockett, S. & Wajer, J. (2014). Hypericum online. accessed 21 May 2017.

Sangkaew, S. (1999). Taxonomic studies of the genus Calophyllum L. (Guttiferae) in Thailand. Masters thesis. Kasetsart University, Bangkok, 144 pp.

Savolainen, V., Fay, M.F., Albach, D.C., Backlund, A., van der Bank, M., Cameron, K.M., Johnson, S.A, Lledo, M.D., Pintaud, J.C., Powell, M., Sheahan, M.C., Soltis, D.E., Soltis, P.S., Weston, P., Whitten, W.M., Wurdack, K.J. & Chase, M.W. (2000a). Phylogeny of the eudicots: a nearly complete familial analysis based on rbcL gene sequences. Kew Bulletin 55: 257–309.

Savolainen, V., Chase, M.W., Hoot, S.B., Morton, C.M., Soltis, D.E., Bayer, C., Fay, M.F., Bruijn, A.Y. de, Sullivan, S. & Qiu, Y.L. (2000b). Phylogenetics of flowering plants based on combined analysis of plastid atpB and rbcL gene sequences. Systematic Biology 49: 306–362.

Soltis, D.E., Soltis, P.S., Chase, M.W., Mort, M.E., Albach, D.C., Zanis, M., Savolainen, V., Hahn, W.H., Hoot, S.B., Fay, M.F., Axtell, M., Swensen S.M., Prince, L.M., Kress, J.W., Nixon, K.C. & Farris, J.S. (2000). Angiosperm phylogeny inferred from 18s rDNA, rbcL, and atpB sequences. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 133: 381–461.
Stevens, P.F. (1980). A revision of the Old World species of Calophyllum (Guttiferae). Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 61: 117–699.

________. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. [and more or less continuously updated since] Version 7, May 2006; accessed 8 Apr. 2008. Version 12, July 2012; accessed March 2012. Version 14, accessed 14th May 2018.

Stevens, P.F. (2006). Clusiaceae and Hypericaceae. In: K. Kubitzki (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants 9, pp. 48–66, 194–201. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Sun, M., Naaem, R., Su, J.-X., Cao, Z.-Y., Burleigh, J.G., Soltis, P.S., Soltis, D.E. & Chen, Z.-D. (2016). Phylogeny of the Rosidae: A dense taxon sampling analysis. Journal of Systematics and Evolution 54: 363–391.

Tokuoka, T. & Tobe, H. (2006). Phylogenetic analyses of Malpighiales using plastid and nuclear DNA sequences, with particular reference to the embryology of Euphorbiaceae sensu stricto. Journal of Plant Research 119: 599–616.

Turland, N.J., Wiersema, J.H., Barrie, F.R., Greuter, W., Hawksworth, D.L., Herendeen, P.S., Knapp, S., Kusber, W-H., Li, De-Zhu, Marhold, K., May, T.W., McNeill, J., Monro, A.M., Prado, J., Price, M.J. & Smith, G.F. (2018). International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (Shenzen Code). Regnum Vegetabile 159. Koeltz Botanical Books, Glashütten, 254 pp.

van Welzen, P.C., Madern, A., Raes, N., Parnell, J.A.N., Simpson, D.A., Byrne, C., Curtis, T., Macklin, J., Trias-Blasi, A., Prajaksood, A., Bygrave, P., Dransfield, S., Kirkup, D.W., Moat, J., Wilkin, P., Couch, C., Boyce. P.C., Chayamarit, K., Chantaranothai, P., Esser, H.-J., Jebb, M.H.P., Larsen, K., Larsen, S.S., Nielsen, I., Meade, C., Middleton, D.J., Pendry, C.A., Musaya, A.M., Pattharahirantricin, N., Pooma, R., Suddee, S., Staples, G., Sungkaew, S. & Teerawatananon, A. (2011). The current and future status of Floristic Provinces in Thailand. In: Y. Trisurat, R.P. Shrestha, & R. Alkemade (eds), Land use, climate change and biodiversity modeling. Perspectives and applications, pp. 219–247. Information Science Reference, Hershey.

Whitmore, T.C. (1973). XVIII. Guttiferae. In: Notes on the systematy of Malayan Phanaerogams XVIII–XXII*. Gardens Bulletin Singapore 26: 269–284.

Wurdack, K.J. & Davis, C.C. (2009). Malpighiales Phylogenetics: gaining ground on one of the most recalcitrant clades in the Angiosperm Tree of Life. American Journal of Botany 96: 1551–1570.




How to Cite

Byrne, C., Parnell, J. A. N., & Chayamarit, K. (2018). Systematics of the Thai Calophyllaceae and Hypericaceae with comments on the Kielmeyeroidae (Clusiaceae). Thai Forest Bulletin (Botany), 46(2), 162–216.




Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 > >>