Causal factors and models of human-Tapanuli orangutan conflict in Batang Toru landscape, North Sumatra, Indonesia
The number of human-Tapanuli orangutan conflicts continues to increase and is increasing the threat of extinction for this animal. The factors and models causing human-Tapanuli orangutan conflicts were analyzed for use as a reference in developing mitigation strategies in the Batang Toru Landscape, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Data collection used the strip transect method, questionnaires, interviews and observations, followed by logistic regression analysis. The results indicated that human-orangutan conflicts increased with the development of community activities such as firewood collection (89.97%), gardening (84.52%), logging (80.38%) and frequent orangutan foraging in farmer gardens (incidence/transect area). The cultivated plants were generally a suitable orangutan food source, such as Durio zibethinus Murray and Parkia speciosa Hassk. Factors causing the significant (p < 0.05) increase in conflict opportunities were the number of food species at tree level, logging activities and community crop damage. Recommended conflict mitigation strategies to improve the ecological conditions were patrolling in conservation forests and habitat rehabilitation with a focus on State forests. Alternative economic ventures could be developed, such as providing compensation and increasing community access rights in social forestry schemes.