https://li01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/anres/issue/feed Agriculture and Natural Resources 2024-02-14T10:46:09+07:00 ANRES Administrator anres@ku.th Open Journal Systems <p>Copyright © 2022, <a href="https://www.ku.ac.th/">Kasetsart University</a>.</p> <p>Production and hosting by Kasetsart University Research and Development Institute (<a href="https://www3.rdi.ku.ac.th/">KURDI</a>) on behalf of Kasetsart University. Peer reviewed under responsibility of Kasetsart University.<br /><strong>Agriculture and Natural Resources (<a href="https://www.facebook.com/agr.nat.resour/">ANRES</a>)</strong> -- formerly <a href="https://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=5000153403&amp;tip=sid&amp;clean=0"><em>Kasetsart Journal (Natural Science)</em></a> -- is a bimonthly peer-reviewed journal funded by Kasetsart University, Thailand. 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Please note that Agriculture and Natural Resources (ANRES) will be fully functional under the ScholarOne system again from 1 April 2023 onward. Every manuscript is charged USD 200 per article after acceptance (THB 5,000 per article for Thai affiliation as ANRES is supported by Kasetsart University and the Thai government.) No refund is possible once the fee has been paid.</p> https://li01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/anres/article/view/262187 Application of elicitors (jasmonic acid, salicylic acid and nanosheet) for in vitro growth and biochemical properties of Siam tulip (Curcuma alismatifolia cv. Maejo Impress) 2024-02-14T10:36:06+07:00 Orada Chumphukam sukalya.po@up.ac.th Yupha Saeyang sukalya.po@up.ac.th Pimpakay Baiya sukalya.po@up.ac.th Nutchanan Duangkon sukalya.po@up.ac.th Sukalya Poothong sukalya.po@up.ac.th <p><strong> Importance of the work</strong>: The Siam tulip (<em>Curcuma alismatifolia</em>) is an economic crop with the potential for producing bioactive compound through plant tissue culture.<br><strong>Objectives</strong>: To investigate the effects of jasmonic acid, salicylic acid and two-dimensional nanomaterials (nanosheets) on the <em>in vitro</em> growth of <em>C. alismatifolia</em> cv. Maejo Impress and its phytochemical properties.<br><strong>Materials &amp; Methods</strong>: Two types of elicitors were tested at three concentrations and they were combined with a nanosheet. The control group utilized a basal Murashige and Skoog medium. The experiment units were assigned following a completely randomized design. After 6 wk of culture, growth, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the Siam tulip cv. Maejo Impress were studied.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The addition of elicitors had no significant effect on the height of explants and new shoots, shoot multiplication and leaf colour. However, the Siam tulip cultured with 4 mg/L and 6 mg/L jasmonic acid (JA) had the highest (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05) total phenolic content and antioxidant activity compared to those cultured without elicitors.<br><strong>Main finding</strong>: The optimal type and concentrations of elicitors were 4–6 mg/L JA for improving the accumulation of bioactive compounds in the micropropagation of <em>C. alismatifolia</em> cv. Maejo Impress without inducing shoot necrosis or death.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kasetsart University https://li01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/anres/article/view/262188 Improvement of stilbene constituents and nutritional quality of peanut sprouts using abiotic elicitation and germination 2024-02-14T10:41:30+07:00 Phadtraphorn Chayjarung apinunl@nu.ac.th Supanich Wongsathan apinunl@nu.ac.th Chonnikan Tothong apinunl@nu.ac.th Chanyanut Pankaew apinunl@nu.ac.th Pakwuan Wongshaya apinunl@nu.ac.th Apinun Limmongkon apinunl@nu.ac.th <p><strong> Importance of the work</strong>: Elicitor treatment has been widely used to improve bioactive compounds in plants. However, very few studies have reported the use of an elicitor treatment in the germination process to improve peanut quality. <br><strong>Objectives</strong>: To evaluate the stilbene compounds and bioactivity of peanut sprouts after seed priming using different elicitors. <br><strong>Materials &amp; Methods</strong>: Peanut seeds were primed using various elicitors: chitosan (CHT), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), methyl-β-yclodextrin (CD) or a combination of all three (CHT+MeJA+CD). Germination was carried out for 3 d. The antioxidant activity, total phenolic compound, stilbene content and the biochemical profiles in the peanut sprouts were investigated.<br><strong>Results</strong>: After germinating for 1–3 d, the antioxidant activities of all elicitor-treated peanut samples exhibited 1.46–2.12-fold increases compared to the untreated control. The highest contents of trans-resveratrol were produced by the peanuts treated with CHT and CHT+MeJA+CD, with 7.72 and 11.48-fold increases, respectively, compared to the untreated control. The highest contents of trans- rachidin-1 and trans-arachidin-3 were in the peanuts treated with CHT, MeJA and CHT+MeJA+CD on day 3 of germination. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profile indicated the protein pattern transformed from a high molecular weight (MW) to a low MW during germination. <br><strong>Main finding</strong>: Combining elicitor priming and germination approaches proved to be an effective strategy that improved the phytochemical profile of peanut sprouts for functional food applications.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kasetsart University https://li01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/anres/article/view/262189 Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling, bioactive compounds and cytotoxicity of edible-cricket extracts as inhibitors for α-glucosidase, α-amylase, tyrosinase, and acetylcholinesterase 2024-02-14T10:46:09+07:00 Jintana Masoongnoen kanokorn_w@rmutt.ac.th Sompong Sansenya kanokorn_w@rmutt.ac.th Kanokorn Wechakorn kanokorn_w@rmutt.ac.th <p><strong> Importance of the work</strong>: In Thailand, consumption is increasing of edible crickets as a future prospective food, due to their various nutrient components and high level of proteins.<br><strong>Objectives</strong>: The crude extracts of several edible cricket insect species were investigated for their levels of enzyme inhibition activity regarding diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease and melanogenesis.<br><strong>Materials &amp; Methods</strong>: Several bioactive compounds, including alkaloids, saponins, steroids, triterpenoids, tannins, phenolics, and flavonoids, were investigated in the cricket extracts using the solvent extraction method and subsequently analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) profiling and their inhibitory levels regarding α-glucosidase, α-amylase, tyrosinase and acetylcholinesterase.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The total phenolic and flavonoids in the methanol extracts had greater inhibition levels than the other extracts. α-Glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase activities were inhibited by the cricket extracts in dichloromethane, similar to standard drugs. The crude extracts of the short-tailed cricket had the same anti-tyrosinase ability as kojic acid. These extracts showed no cytotoxicity in mouse subcutaneous connective tissue and human keratinocyte immortal cells. The GC-MS analysis confirmed that the inhibitory activity levels of the unsaturated and saturated fatty acids were the major components in the cricket extracts.<br><strong>Main finding</strong>: Cricket extracts from the domestic house cricket, field cricket and short-tailed cricket, displayed diverse potential as enzyme inhibitors for α-glucosidase, α-amylase, tyrosinase and acetylcholinesterase, supporting the future use of crickets as functional food ingredients.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kasetsart University https://li01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/anres/article/view/261638 Evaluation of final quality of germinated brown rice following steaming and hot-air drying at different temperatures 2023-12-26T14:39:03+07:00 Jaturong Langkapin sunan.p@en.rmutt.ac.th Sunan Parnsakhorn sunan.p@en.rmutt.ac.th Orawan Oupathumpanont sunan.p@en.rmutt.ac.th Grianggai Samseemoung sunan.p@en.rmutt.ac.th <p><strong><u>Importance of the work</u></strong>: Heat treatment factors (steaming and different drying temperatures) can influence the final quality of germinated brown rice.<br><strong><u>Objectives</u></strong>: To evaluate the final quality of germinated brown rice (GBR) under steaming and hot air drying at different temperatures.<br><strong><u>Materials &amp; Methods</u></strong>: Brown rice was soaked at 40°C for 4 hr before being incubated at 40°C and 90% relative humidity for another 20 hr to make the GBR samples. Then, the GBR was separated into two groups that were subjected to different treatments: steamed drying (S) and non-steamed drying (NSD). The S group consisted of GBR samples that were steamed at 100°C for 10 min before being individually dried at temperatures of 20°C, 40°C, 80°C or 160°C, whereas the NSD GBR samples were dried at these same temperatures without pre-steaming.&nbsp;<br><strong><u>Results</u></strong>: Germination increased the plate count of microorganisms to 5.67×10<sup>6</sup> colony forming units (CFU)/g; however; this was reduced during high-temperature drying (2.57×10<sup>3</sup> CFU/g). The yellowness of the NSD increased with increasing drying temperature (from 23.65 to 25.21); however, there was no impact of the yellowness for the S group. The lowest lightness (<em>L</em>*) of the S group was obtained by drying at low temperatures (20°C, 40°C), with significant increases to 58% and 60% after drying at 80°C and 160°C, respectively. It also increased the pasting properties of the NSD and S treatments. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the gelatinization of the S group at all drying temperatures.<br><strong><u>Main finding</u></strong>: GBR was improved through steaming and subsequent drying which also removed moisture from the grain mass to enhance longer-term storage microbial quality.</p> 2023-12-20T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kasetsart University https://li01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/anres/article/view/261635 Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling, bioactive compounds and cytotoxicity of edible-cricket extracts as inhibitors for alpha-glucosidase, alpha-amylase, tyrosinase, and acetylcholinesterase 2023-12-26T14:22:06+07:00 Jintana Masoongnoen kanokorn_w@rmutt.ac.th Sompong Sansenya kanokorn_w@rmutt.ac.th Kanokorn Wechakorn kanokorn_w@rmutt.ac.th <p><strong><u>Importance of the work</u></strong>: In Thailand, consumption is increasing of edible crickets as a future prospective food, due to their various nutrient components and high level of proteins.<br><strong><u>Objectives</u></strong>: The crude extracts of several edible cricket insect species were investigated for their levels of enzyme inhibition activity regarding diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and melanogenesis.<br><strong><u>Materials &amp; Methods</u></strong>: Several bioactive compounds, including alkaloids, saponins, steroids, triterpenoids, tannins, phenolics, and flavonoids, were investigated in the cricket extracts using the solvent extraction method and subsequently analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) profiling and their inhibitory levels regarding <img title="\alpha" src="https://latex.codecogs.com/gif.latex?\alpha">-glucosidase, <img title="\alpha" src="https://latex.codecogs.com/gif.latex?\alpha">-amylase, tyrosinase and acetylcholinesterase.<br><strong><u>Results</u></strong>: The total phenolic and flavonoids in the methanol extracts had greater inhibition levels than the other extracts. <img title="\alpha" src="https://latex.codecogs.com/gif.latex?\alpha">-Glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase activities were inhibited by the cricket extracts in dichloromethane, similar to standard drugs. The crude extracts of the short-tailed cricket had the same anti-tyrosinase ability as kojic acid. These extracts showed no cytotoxicity in mouse subcutaneous connective tissue and human keratinocyte immortal cells. The GC-MS analysis confirmed that the inhibitory activity levels of the unsaturated and saturated fatty acids were the major components in the cricket extracts.<br><strong><u>Main finding</u></strong>: Cricket extracts from the domestic house cricket, field cricket and short-tailed cricket, displayed diverse potential as enzyme inhibitors for <img title="\alpha" src="https://latex.codecogs.com/gif.latex?\alpha">-glucosidase, <img title="\alpha" src="https://latex.codecogs.com/gif.latex?\alpha">-amylase, tyrosinase and acetylcholinesterase, supporting the future use of crickets as functional food ingredients.</p> 2023-12-20T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kasetsart University https://li01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/anres/article/view/261634 Improvement of stilbene constituents and nutritional quality of peanut sprouts using abiotic elicitation and germination 2023-12-26T14:13:43+07:00 Phadtraphorn Chayjarung apinunl@nu.ac.th Supanich Wongsathan apinunl@nu.ac.th Chonnikan Tothong apinunl@nu.ac.th Chanyanut Pankaew apinunl@nu.ac.th Pakwuan Wongshaya apinunl@nu.ac.th Apinun Limmongkon apinunl@nu.ac.th <p><strong><u>Importance of the work</u></strong>: Elicitor treatment has been widely used to improve bioactive compounds in plants. However, very few studies have reported the use of an elicitor treatment in the germination process to improve peanut quality.<br><strong><u>Objectives</u></strong>: To evaluate the stilbene compounds and bioactivity of peanut sprouts after seed priming using different elicitors.<br><strong><u>Materials &amp; Methods</u></strong>: Peanut seeds were primed using various elicitors: chitosan (CHT), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), methyl-𝛽-cyclodextrin (CD) or a combination of all three (CHT+MeJA+CD). Germination was carried out for 3 d. The antioxidant activity, total phenolic compound, stilbene content and the biochemical profiles in the peanut sprouts were investigated.<br><strong><u>Results</u></strong>: After germinating for 1–3 d, the antioxidant activities of all elicitor-treated peanut samples exhibited 1.46–2.12-fold increases compared to the untreated control. The highest contents of <em>trans</em>-resveratrol were produced by the peanuts treated with CHT and CHT+MeJA+CD, with 7.72 and 11.48-fold increases, respectively, compared to the untreated control. The highest contents of <em>trans</em>-arachidin-1 and <em>trans</em>-arachidin-3 were in the peanuts treated with CHT, MeJA and CHT+MeJA+CD on day 3 of germination. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profile indicated the protein pattern transformed from a high molecular weight (MW) to a low MW during germination.<br><strong><u>Main finding</u></strong>: Combining elicitor priming and germination approaches proved to be an effective strategy that improved the phytochemical profile of peanut sprouts for functional food applications.</p> 2023-12-20T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kasetsart University https://li01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/anres/article/view/261639 Biochemical characterization of protein-digesting enzymes from viscera of bigfin reef squid (Sepioteuthis lessoniana) and implications for in vitro protein digestibility 2023-12-26T14:43:47+07:00 Jirapan Satjarak karun.t@psu.ac.th Sappasith Klomklao karun.t@psu.ac.th Naraid Suanyuk karun.t@psu.ac.th Karun Thongprajukaew karun.t@psu.ac.th <p><strong><u>Importance of the work</u></strong>: Proteinase characteristics and digestibility screening can be used for nutritional investigations and the formulation of a suitable diet incorporating bigfin reef squid.<br><strong><u>Objective</u></strong>: To investigate the proteolytic activity and <em>in vitro</em> protein digestion of enzymes from the viscera of bigfin reef squid.<br><strong><u>Materials &amp; Methods</u></strong>: The pH (2–11) and temperature (25–80°C) characteristics, stability, and inhibition of proteinases from viscera extracts of bigfin reef squid were investigated and the <em>in vitro</em> digestibility of five alternative protein ingredients were screened.<br><strong><u>Results</u></strong>: The highest activity of proteolytic enzymes was at pH 6 and 45°C. Three observed proteinases were stable in the pH range 5–11 and at temperatures of up to 40<sup>o</sup>C, for exposure times of 30–120 min. An inhibition study indicated that various proteinases were present in bigfin reef squid viscera. Based on <em>in vitro</em> digestibility, squid meat and brine shrimp were appropriate sources of alternative protein (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05). Digestibility values did not differ when squid meat was replaced with grade levels of soybean meal or fish meal (<em>p</em> &gt; 0.05).<br><strong><u>Main findings</u></strong>: The optimal conditions for the major proteinases were pH 6 and 45°C. Based on their characteristics, the major proteinases were most likely chymotrypsin or chymotrypsin-like. The <em>in vitro</em> digestibility study suggested that squid meat could be replaced as a protein source with grade levels of soybean meal or fish meal.</p> 2023-12-20T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kasetsart University https://li01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/anres/article/view/261640 Effects of vitamins C and E on semen quality and reproductive hormones in yellow mystus (Hemibagrus spilopterus) 2023-12-26T14:48:37+07:00 Natthawan Sommuek samnao.sa@rmuti.ac.th Krittima Kasamawut samnao.sa@rmuti.ac.th Praneet Ngamsnae samnao.sa@rmuti.ac.th Kosit Sreeputhorn samnao.sa@rmuti.ac.th Samnao Saowakoon samnao.sa@rmuti.ac.th <p><strong><u>Importance of the work</u></strong>: Breeding success depends partly on sperm quality which could be enhanced by vitamin supplementation in feed.<br><strong><u>Objectives</u></strong>: To investigate the effects of vitamins C and E and their combination on semen quality and sex hormones in yellow mystus.<br><strong><u>Materials &amp; Methods</u></strong>: Male yellow mystus aged 1 yr were stocked in three cages (each 4 m<sup>2</sup>) and fed with 32% protein commercial feed supplemented with: 1) no vitamins as the control; 2) vitamin C (Vit C) at 1,000 mg/kg; 3) vitamin E (Vit E) at 500 mg/kg; 4) Vit C at 1,000 mg/kg + Vit E at 500 mg/kg. In each experimental group, the growth, semen quality and sex hormones were investigated.<br><strong><u>Results</u></strong>: The results showed that vitamin supplementation did not affect the growth of yellow mystus. On day 30, the Vit C, Vit E and Vit C + Vit E groups had higher gonadosomatic index values than the control (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05). On days 30 and 60, the Vit C + Vit E group had the highest mean sperm motility (87.33 ± 3.05%; <em>p </em>&lt; 0.05). On day 30, the Vit C and the Vit C + Vit E groups had higher sperm viability than the control (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05), while on day 60, the Vit C, Vit E, and Vit C + Vit E groups had higher sperm viability (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05). In addition, the Vit C + Vit E group had significantly higher testosterone levels compared to the control and the Vit C group measured on day 60. &nbsp;<br><strong><u>Main finding</u></strong>: Adding Vit C + Vit E in the diet enhanced the semen quality and sex hormones of yellow mystus. This approach could serve as an effective method to increase the fingerling production of yellow mystus.</p> 2023-12-20T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kasetsart University https://li01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/anres/article/view/261633 Application of elicitors (jasmonic acid, salicylic acid and nanosheet) for in vitro growth and biochemical properties of Siam tulip (Curcuma alismatifolia cv. Maejo Impress) 2023-12-26T14:06:44+07:00 Orada Chumphukam sukalya.po@up.ac.th Yupha Saeyang sukalya.po@up.ac.th Pimpakay Baiya sukalya.po@up.ac.th Nutchanan Duangkon sukalya.po@up.ac.th Sukalya Poothong sukalya.po@up.ac.th <p><strong><u>Importance of the work</u></strong>: The Siam tulip (<em>Curcuma alismatifolia</em>) is an economic crop with the potential for producing bioactive compound through plant tissue culture.<br><strong><u>Objectives</u></strong>: To investigate the effects of jasmonic acid, salicylic acid and two-dimensional nanomaterials (nanosheets) on the <em>in vitro</em> growth of <em>C. alismatifolia</em> cv. Maejo Impress and its phytochemical properties.<br><strong><u>Materials &amp; Methods</u></strong>: Two types of elicitors were tested at three concentrations and they were combined with a nanosheet. The control group utilized a basal Murashige and Skoog medium. The experiment units were assigned following a completely randomized design. After 6 wk of culture, growth, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the Siam tulip cv. Maejo Impress were studied.<br><strong><u>Results</u></strong>: The addition of elicitors had no significant effect on the height of explants and new shoots, shoot multiplication and leaf colour. However, the Siam tulip cultured with 4 mg/L and 6 mg/L jasmonic acid (JA) had the highest (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) total phenolic content and antioxidant activity compared to those cultured without elicitors.<br><strong><u>Main finding</u></strong>: The optimal type and concentrations of elicitors were 4–6 mg/L JA for improving the accumulation of bioactive compounds in the micropropagation of <em>C. alismatifolia </em>cv. Maejo Impress without inducing shoot necrosis or death.</p> 2023-12-20T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kasetsart University https://li01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/anres/article/view/261641 Three-dimensional Thai dessert printing: A preliminary study on Khanom Ar-Lua 2023-12-26T14:53:02+07:00 Natthavika Chansri thittikorn@eng.src.ku.ac.th Wachiraporn Yindee thittikorn@eng.src.ku.ac.th Suttinee Pattamanawin thittikorn@eng.src.ku.ac.th Thittikorn Phattanaphibul thittikorn@eng.src.ku.ac.th <p><strong><u>Importance of the work</u></strong>: Thai desserts require a lot of time to form their exquisite shapes. Three-dimensional (3D) printing may improve this process.<br><strong><u>Objectives</u></strong>: To investigate the possibility of applying 3D printing in the Thai dessert industry.<br><strong><u>Materials &amp; Methods</u></strong>: A printing substrate was prepared according to the ingredients for cooking “Khanom Ar-Lua”. An extrusion-based, 3D printing technique was applied to create specimens. In addition, a new mechanical extrusion system was constructed and tested for its dimensional controllability of the deposited substrate.<br><strong><u>Results</u></strong>: The results of the printed substrate showed good raster width, including consistency and repeatability. There were problems with misalignment between printed layers and the long drying time after the shaping step.<br><strong><u>Main finding</u></strong>: 3D printing technology showed potential for application in the Thai dessert industry to improve the processing time spent in the shaping step. Further study will investigate using a 3D scanner and reverse engineering technology to prepare digital records of the exquisite shapes of Thai desserts that cannot be easily generated using a computer-aided design package.&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> 2023-12-20T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kasetsart University https://li01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/anres/article/view/261642 Comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals genes encoding polygalacturonase inhibitors and lectins as promising candidates conferring bruchid (Callosobruchus chinensis) resistance in moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) 2023-12-26T14:57:28+07:00 Shyali Iroshani Rathnayaka Gamage agrpks@ku.ac.th Hirokazu Takahashi agrpks@ku.ac.th Khuynh The Bui agrpks@ku.ac.th Mikio Nakazono agrpks@ku.ac.th Prakit Somta agrpks@ku.ac.th <p><strong><u>Importance of the work</u></strong>: Yield loss caused by the seed beetles (also known as bruchids or seed weevils) <em>Callosobruchus chinenesis</em> and <em>Callosobruchus maculatus</em> is a serious problem in several legume crops. Enhancing seed resistance to these bruchids is a major goal in legume breeding programs. Moth bean (<em>Vigna aconitifolia</em>) is an underutilized crop with only a few reports on genomic research. The current study used comparative RNA-seq-based transcriptomic analysis to identify candidate genes for bruchid resistance in moth bean.<br><strong><u>Objectives</u></strong>: To identify candidate genes for bruchid resistance in moth bean (<em>Vigna aconitifolia</em>), a hardy minor legume crop.<br><strong><u>Materials &amp; Methods</u></strong>: The moth bean accessions TN67 (wild and resistant) and IPCMO056 (cultivated and susceptible) were grown under controlled conditions. RNA-seq-based transcriptomic analysis was performed on the immature seeds and semi-mature seeds of the two cultivars. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to confirm the genes with probable function for bruchid resistance that showed different expression.<br><strong><u>Results</u></strong>: The transcriptomic analysis showed that a gene encoding a polygalacturonate inhibitor and two genes producing lectins had differential expression. These genes were up-regulated at both the immature and semi-mature stages, albeit in each case, their expression was significantly higher in the mature stage. RT-qPCR analysis confirmed the up-regulated expression of these genes. Altogether, these results suggested that genes encoding a polygalacturonase inhibitor and lectins could be candidate genes for bruchid resistance in moth bean.<br><strong><u>Main finding</u></strong>: Genes relating to plant defense in the seeds of moth bean were identified. Genes encoding a polygalacturonase inhibitor and lectins were identified as candidate genes conferring bruchid resistance in the moth bean accession TN67.</p> 2023-12-20T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kasetsart University https://li01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/anres/article/view/261636 Effect of drying techniques on browning index, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides, triterpenoids and antioxidant activity of tiger milk mushroom (Lignosus rhinocerus) sclerotium 2023-12-26T14:28:56+07:00 Kanteera Soontharapirakkul kanteera.soo@kmutt.ac.th Thidaporn Kotpat kanteera.soo@kmutt.ac.th <p><strong><u>Importance of the work</u></strong>: Drying is one method for preserving medicinal mushrooms. Many studies have found that different drying techniques affect bioactive compounds and biological activity of the product. However, the effect of drying the tiger milk mushroom (<em>Lignosus rhinocerus</em>) sclerotium has not been studied.<br><strong><u>Objectives</u></strong>: To investigate drying techniques to produce a high content of bioactive compounds and levels of antioxidant activity in the tiger milk mushroom sclerotium.<br><strong><u>Materials &amp; Methods</u></strong>: The sliced sclerotium samples were dried using seven drying techniques: sun drying (SD), shade drying (SHD), freeze-drying (FD), oven drying at 40°C (OD40), oven drying at 70°C (OD70), light dry roasting (LDR), and dark dry roasting (DDR)&nbsp; Subsequently the dried samples were milled into individual powders. Next, the dried samples were extracted with boiling water and analyzed for browning index, total phenolic, total flavonoid, total polysaccharide content and antioxidant activity compared to the fresh sample (FSH).<br><strong><u>Results</u></strong>: The DDR and OD70 techniques showed high values for the browning index and antioxidant activity (based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate and ferric reducing antioxidant power analysis) and for the total phenolic, total flavonoid and total polysaccharide contents. In contrast, the total protein content was high in the low-temperature drying samples (FSH, SD, SHD, LDR and FD). The highest total triterpenoid content (mean ± SD; 14.52 ± 0.57 mg ursolic acid/g of dry basis) was obtained in the OD40 sample.<br><strong><u>Main finding</u></strong>: DDR was a potent drying technique that enhanced the total phenolic, total flavonoid and total polysaccharide contents, as well as antioxidant activity. Thus, using the DDR technique may be the most appropriate option to preserve the quality of the sclerotium of the tiger milk mushroom for commercialization as a medicinal mushroom powder for infusion.</p> 2023-12-20T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kasetsart University https://li01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/anres/article/view/261637 Management of Spodoptera exigua on shallots in several areas of Indonesia using mating disruption with different pheromone doses 2023-12-26T14:32:01+07:00 Witjaksono witjaksono@ugm.ac.id Alan Soffan witjaksono@ugm.ac.id Arman Wijonarko witjaksono@ugm.ac.id Edhi Martono witjaksono@ugm.ac.id F.X. Wagiman witjaksono@ugm.ac.id Nugroho Susetya Putra witjaksono@ugm.ac.id Tri Harjaka witjaksono@ugm.ac.id Siwi Indarti witjaksono@ugm.ac.id Suputa witjaksono@ugm.ac.id Y. Andi Trisyono witjaksono@ugm.ac.id <p><strong><u>Importance of the work</u></strong>: The continuous use of insecticides with the same active ingredient has resulted in the growth of insecticide-resistant <em>Spodoptera exigua</em> moth populations that can accumulate in shallot tubers.<br><strong><u>Objectives</u></strong>: To investigate the effectiveness of using pheromones as a mating disruption approach in managing <em>S. exigua</em>.<br><strong><u>Material &amp; </u></strong><strong><u>M</u></strong><strong><u>ethods</u></strong>: This study was carried out in Bantul, Nganjuk and Kulon Progo, Indonesia. In Bantul, 500 dispensers/ha were installed together with a control. In Ngajuk, 100 dispensers/ha, 200 dispensers/ha and 300 dispensers/ha were installed togeteher with a control. In Kulon Progo, 100 dispenser/ha were installed, together with a control. All treatments were replicated three times.<br><strong><u>Result</u></strong>: Pheromone installation of 500 dispensers/ha in Bantul disrupted the <em>S. exigua</em> males from locating the females. The effectiveness of sex pheromones was also observed in Nganjuk (300 dispensers/ha, 200 dispensers/ha and 100 dispensers/ha) and in Kulon Progo (100 dispensers/ha). These experiments showed that disrupting the male-female communication was successful because male-female encounters in the treatment plots were reduced. Hence, the eggs of the <em>S. exigua</em> females were not fertilized and fewer eggs hatched. However, the effectiveness of disrupting the male-female communication decreased when the moth population in the field was high.<br><strong><u>Main finding</u></strong>: The installation of pheromone at dosages of 100 dispensers/ha, 200 dispensers/ha, 300 dispensers/ha and 500 dispensers/ha disrupted male-female communication among low populations<em> of S. exigua</em> . Installation of pheromone in 100 dispensers/ha could be a favorable option for farmers because it had the lowest materials cost. The placement of the pheromone dispensers around the field perimeter should be considered because it might hinder <em>S. exigua</em> from entering the field. Additionally, using pheromones before planting could serve as a control technique.</p> 2023-12-20T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kasetsart University https://li01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/anres/article/view/261763 Genetic variability and heritability in 2nd generation mutant population from “Gando Keta” sorghum mutation 2024-01-08T13:02:38+07:00 Endang Gati Lestari hern011@brin.go.id Herniwati hern011@brin.go.id Prasetyorini Djarot hern011@brin.go.id Fitrahtunnisa hern011@brin.go.id Rossa Yunita hern011@brin.go.id Karlina Syahruddin hern011@brin.go.id Fatmawati hern011@brin.go.id Suarni hern011@brin.go.id Marcia Bunga Pabendon hern011@brin.go.id <p><strong><u>Importance of the work</u></strong>: The sorghum mutant “Gando Keta”is known to have a sticky texture but low production levels, with mutations expected to produce plants with improved yields.<br /><strong><u>Objectives</u></strong>: To use gamma radiation to produce sorghum mutants of “Gando Keta” with high yield and fluffy texture.<br /><strong><u>Materials &amp; Methods</u></strong>: Explants (2 mm high, aged 3 d) were exposed to radiation doses in the range 10–100 Gy in 10 Gy increments. The shoots were acclimatized and their variability was observed. Then, 30 2<sup>nd</sup> generation mutant (M2) plants for each dose of 40 Gy, 50 Gy, 60 Gy and 70 Gy were planted and observed for plant height, panicle diameter, panicle length, wet and dry panicle weights and seed weight.<br /><strong><u>Results</u></strong>: Analysis of variance showed significant differences in mean plant height, stem diameter and panicle length. Radiation with doses of 40 Gy and 50 Gy produced significantly greater plant heights than those irradiated with a dose of 70 Gy. Observations on the growth characteristics of the six selected genotypes showed that the genotype "GK50-18" had a significantly greater plant height compared to M2, while the genotypes "GK60-13" and "GK70-5" were significantly lower than the M2 population. Seed weight had wide genetic variability and high heritability, so selection should be based on seed weight characters using the pedigree technique. Amylose analysis identified genotypes with lower amylose contents that should be further tested to determine the stability of the results.<br /><strong><u>Main finding</u></strong>: Selection on the 2<sup>nd</sup> generation mutant (M2) population obtained six genotypes with higher productivity: "GK50-18", "GK50-19", "GK60-11", "GK60-13", "GK60-9" and "GK70-5".</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kasetsart University https://li01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/anres/article/view/262182 Application of low methoxyl pectin powder derived from palmyra palm pulp wash water to enhance toddy palm cake quality 2024-02-14T09:56:21+07:00 Sukanya Wichchukit fengkska@ku.ac.th Maelada Fuengfoo fengkska@ku.ac.th Chutima Thongkaew fengkska@ku.ac.th Savarak Chantaratepthimakul fengkska@ku.ac.th Chananya Roichimplee fengkska@ku.ac.th Saralan Choomchuboon fengkska@ku.ac.th Kobsak Kanjanapongkul fengkska@ku.ac.th <p><strong> Importance of the work</strong>: One key aspect of the circular economy involves harnessing the potential of waste to create added value. Utilizing products from wastewater collected during the palmyra palm pulp (PPP) washing process might have value and avoid causing <br />environmental pollution.<br /><strong>Objectives</strong>: To recover and characterize pectin from water collected from the PPP washing process and to demonstrate a practical application for the recovered low methoxyl pectin (LMP).<br /><strong>Materials &amp; Methods</strong>: The pectin recovery involved washing the fresh PPP with distilled water, separating the pulp, precipitating the pectin in 95% ethanol and subsequently drying and grinding. Then, the pectin powder was characterized and incorporated into the production process of toddy palm cake (TPC) to demonstrate a practical application.<br /><strong>Results</strong>: The yield of the recovered pectin was in the range 10–15% weight per weight. Characterization of the pectin powder from PPP confirmed it to be LMP, with a degree of esterification of 32.28 ± 3.63% (mean ± SD). The pectin solution formed a gel with calcium ions, with a minimum concentration of 30 mg/g of pectin. In the absence of pectin, the introduction of calcium had detrimental effects on the TPC properties, resulting in increased hardness and reduced surface porosity. The addition of pectin significantly improved the quality of the TPC reducing the hardness of the TPC sample and increased its springiness, specific volume and surface porosity, surpassing the properties of the controlled sample.<br /><strong>Main finding</strong>: Utilizing the LMP in the palmyra palm pulp wash water presented an opportunity to extract pectin in a sustainable and cost-effective manner. The enhancement in the TPC texture highlighted the positive impact of incorporating pectin, leading to a more enjoyable eating experience.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kasetsart University https://li01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/anres/article/view/262183 Effects of replacing soybean meal with Giant Mimosa (Mimosa pigra L.) leaf meal in diet on productive performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent digestibility of native chickens (Leung Hang Kao) 2024-02-14T10:12:19+07:00 Bancha Suebsima chawalit.s@ubu.ac.th Areerat Lunpha chawalit.s@ubu.ac.th Chawalit Siriboon chawalit.s@ubu.ac.th <p><strong> Importance of the work</strong>: Giant Mimosa leaf meal (GLM) in poultry diets is a promising approach to improving nutrition and production efficiency. <br><strong>Objectives</strong>: To investigate the productive performance and digestibility for Leung Hang Kao chickens fed a diet containing GLM.<br><strong>Materials &amp; Methods</strong>: There were 5 groups with varying GLM levels (0%, 5%, 10%,15% or 20%), each with 4 replicates of 10 chickens. In total, 200 chickens were assessed for growth rate and production costs, while 20 chickens were studied for apparent digestibility. At age 16 wk, 40 chickens were examined for carcass characteristics. <br><strong>Results</strong>: The diet with 5% GLM (GLM5) resulted in increased body weight, average daily gain and feed conversion ratios in the chickens. The GLM5 chickens had lower feed cost per gain and a higher net profit per bird (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05). Chickens in the GLM20 group had higher feed intake and total feed cost (p &lt; 0.01). The GLM5 group had highly significantly (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.01) lower total rearing costs and higher net profit return per bird and a significantly (p &lt; 0.05) greater return on investment compared with the GLM10, GLM15 and GLM20 groups. There were no significant differences in carcass characteristics. At age 16 wk, with increased content of GLM in the diet, the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and crude protein decreased (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.01). <br><strong>Main finding</strong>: Compared with the other GLM levels, the GLM5 group showed improved growth and feed efficiency, lower rearing costs and higher net profit and return on investment. The higher GLM content did not affect carcass characteristics, despite changes in digestibility.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kasetsart University https://li01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/anres/article/view/262184 Enhancing sweetness perception with vanilla extract: Strategy for developing low-sugar food formulations for the elderly 2024-02-14T10:17:09+07:00 Aussama Soontrunnarudrungsri fagihru@ku.ac.th Withida Chantrapornchai fagihru@ku.ac.th Hathairat Rimkeeree fagihru@ku.ac.th <p><strong>Importance of the work</strong>: Excessive sugar consumption can lead to various health problems, especially in the elderly. Vanilla extract can effectively enhance sweetness perception, enabling sugar reduction in food formulations without compromising consumer acceptability.<br><strong>Objectives</strong>: To investigate the effect of adding vanilla extract on the sweetness perception and acceptance of three food models (water, milk, and coconut milk) among elderly participants. <br><strong>Materials &amp; Methods</strong>: A multi-sensory integration approach was used to reduce the sugar content in three food models. Initially, the sugar content in each model was set based on commercial products and gradually reduced in 0.5% increments, resulting in seven sugar levels. Vanilla extract was added to all samples. Trained panelists evaluated the flavor profiles of the three food models with and without vanilla extract. Elderly consumers assessed the sweetness perception and overall liking of the models.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Vanilla extract enhanced the sweetness perception in all three models. In the water models, vanilla enabled a 15% reduction in sugar without compromising the perceived sweet aroma or sweetness. In the coconut milk models, a 13.33% reduction in coconut sugar was achieved while maintaining the perceived sweet aroma and sweetness. However, in the milk models, the reduced-sugar formulation with vanilla was less sweet than the control, although the sweet aroma was not affected. For elderly consumers, vanilla enabled a sugar reduction in all three food models without affecting overall liking. <br><strong>Main finding</strong>: Vanilla extract could effectively enhance sweetness perception in various food models, enabling a reduction in sugar content without compromising palatability and overall consumer acceptance. This strategy could be a promising approach to product reformulation without relying on non-nutritive sweeteners.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kasetsart University https://li01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/anres/article/view/262185 Potency of Indian gooseberry peel supplementation for suppressing rumen methane production via alteration of rumen microbiota: Batch culture evaluations 2024-02-14T10:22:05+07:00 Kana Shinagawa kyas@agr.hokudai.ac.jp Phoompong Boonesaen kyas@agr.hokudai.ac.jp Anchalee Khongpradit kyas@agr.hokudai.ac.jp Suriya Sawanon kyas@agr.hokudai.ac.jp Yutaka Suzuki kyas@agr.hokudai.ac.jp Satoshi Koike kyas@agr.hokudai.ac.jp Yasuo Kobayashi kyas@agr.hokudai.ac.jp <p><strong> Importance of the work</strong>: There is an urgent need to find feed additive candidates for mitigating enteric methane in ruminants for sustainable animal production. <br /><strong>Objectives</strong>: To evaluate Indian gooseberry peel (IGP) as one of the new additive candidates for rumen methane mitigation. <br /><strong>Materials &amp; Methods</strong>: The methane-suppressing potency of IGP was assessed by measuring gas production in two <em>in vitro</em> studies using cattle rumen fluid. Studies were performed using different supplementation levels of IGP (0–20% in total substrate; experiment 1), and dietary substrate with different hay-to-concentrate ratios (33:67 and 67:33; experiment 2). The rumen microbial response to IGP supplementation was monitored based on MiSeq amplicon sequencing analysis. <br /><strong>Results</strong>: IGP supplementation at ≥5% suppressed methane production without affecting hydrogen gas and total short-chain fatty acid production. These changes were consistent, irrespective of differences in the hay-to-concentrate ratio, while the degree of methane suppression was in the range 10–14%. A simultaneous increase in lactate concentration was observed with IGP supplementation, with minimal changes in short chain fatty acid proportions. The MiSeq analysis revealed specific changes in rumen microbiota associated with IGP supplementation, with a decrease in Christensenellaceae R7 involved in hydrogen production and an increase in Lachnospiraceae NK3A20 related to lactate production being notable for bacteria, whereas a decrease in Methanobrevibacter and increases in Methanosphaera and Methanomicrobium were observed for methanogenic archaea.<br /><strong>Main finding</strong>: IGP could be a candidate feed to mitigate rumen methane production without depressing rumen digestive capability at 5–15% supplementation in the diet, suggesting microbial and metabolic changes.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kasetsart University https://li01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/anres/article/view/262186 Alleviation of internal browning and fruit rot disease in ‘Pattavia’ pineapple using ethanolic shellac-modified coconut oil coating 2024-02-14T10:30:11+07:00 Phonmongkol Jiragittidoon pongphen.jit@kmutt.ac.th Kanlaya Sripong pongphen.jit@kmutt.ac.th Panida Boonyaritthongchai pongphen.jit@kmutt.ac.th Apiradee Uthairatanakij pongphen.jit@kmutt.ac.th Pongphen Jitareerat pongphen.jit@kmutt.ac.th <p><strong>Importance of the work</strong>: Internal browning (IB) and fruit rot disease are the main problems of harvested pineapple that limit its quality. <br><strong>Objective</strong>: To investigate the effect of ethanolic shellac-modified coconut oil (ES-MCO) coating against IB and fruit rot disease in ‘Pattavia’ pineapples. <br><strong>Materials &amp; Methods</strong>: Fruits were coated with ES-MCO (consisting of 8% shellac and 2% MCO) and stored at 13°C and 95% relative humidity for 20 d. Uncoated fruits were used as the control. The IB, physiochemical qualities and rot disease were determined. <br><strong>Results</strong>: The ES-MCO treatment maintained fruit quality through a reduction in the respiration rate, resulting in a slower weight loss and color changes (peel and pulp). The browning index and browning scores of the coated fruits were lower than those of the control by 8.8% and 33.26%, respectively, while maintaining the total soluble solids/titratable acidity (TSS/TA) ratio and the ascorbic acid content. The ES-MCO treatment significantly reduced the polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activity levels (browning enzymes), by 1.56–5.52 and 1.16–2.14 times, respectively, relative to the control. These results correlated with the reduction in IB and the increase in the total phenolic content. Compared to the control, the ES-MCO treatment slowed down the increase in the malondialdehyde content that is involved with the oxidative stress response, as well as suppressing rot disease. <br><strong>Main finding</strong>: Coating pineapple with ES-MCO alleviated IB and rot disease and delayed adverse changes in the physiochemical qualities caused by a reduction in the respiration rate.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kasetsart University