Food and Applied Bioscience Journal <div> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> </div> Faculty of Agro-Industry, Chiang Mai University en-US Food and Applied Bioscience Journal 2286-8615 Formulation of Reduced-Sugar, Fiber-Enriched Thai Traditional Sweet Egg Yolk Cake ‘Thong Ake’ <p>An excessive consumption of Thong Ake, a Thai traditional auspicious dessert made of sugar, flour, coconut milk, and egg yolk, could be a potential risk factor for non-communicable diseases. This study, thus, aimed to formulate reduced-sugar and fiber-enriched Thong Ake containing stevioside-sorbitol mixture and resistant starch type 2 (RS). A mixture of stevioside and sorbitol (1 : 500) was used to replace 50, 75, and 100% of sugar in the control recipe to maintain the sweetness intensity. Fiber enrichment was performed by substituting RS for 25, 50, 75, and 100% of rice flour. The findings revealed that Thong Ake with 50% sugar and 50% flour substitutions received the highest sensory acceptability scores, rated by 50 untrained panelists on a 9-point hedonic scale, among other modified formulas, but not different from the control formula. Therefore, such formula was selected to evaluate its chemical and physical properties. The results indicated that the modified product contained 13 g of sugar and 7 g of dietary fiber in an 80-g serving, which is 50% less and 92% more than the control recipe, respectively. All color values (<em>L*, a*, b*</em>) were higher than the control sample. Texture profile analysis indicated that its hardness value was lower than the control formula, while the springiness and cohesiveness values were higher. Therefore, sugar reduction and fiber enrichment in Thong Ake could be achieved by partial substitution of sugar and flour with stevioside-sorbitol mixture and RS, respectively. The developed Thong Ake could be an alternative to Thai dessert for people who want to limit their carbohydrate intake.</p> Chitraporn Ngampeerapong Nitjaree Maneerat Phimphida Sitkongden Radchaneekorn Saiyart Nattapol Tangsuphoom Copyright (c) 2022 Food and Applied Bioscience Journal 2022-04-25 2022-04-25 10 1 30 42 Chemical Antioxidant Activity of Thunbergia Lauriforia Linn. (Rang Chuet) Leaves and its Combined Extracts <p>Plant extracts and various natural products may exhibit a synergistic interaction.<em> Thunbergia laurifolia </em>Lindl., also known as "Rang Chuet" in Thailand, is a plant with antioxidant properties widely used in traditional medicine. <em>Zingiber officinale</em> (ginger), a flavoring ingredient in foods, is well known for its numerous health benefits. There have been no studies on the interaction of antioxidant activity of Rang Chuet with other plant extracts up until now. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the interaction of Rang Chuet water extract (RWE) and ginger ethanol extract (GEE). First, the total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of RWE and GEE were determined. High-performance liquid chromatography spectrometry (HPLC) was used to examine the phytochemical profile of RWE. The RWE represented coumaric, caffeic, protocatechuic, rosmarinic, and gallic acid as phenolic compounds and apigenin as flavonoids. Chemical antioxidant assays were performed on single and combined extracts using the ABTS·+ radical cation scavenging capacity assay (ABTS), DPPH free radical scavenging capacity assay (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), and ferric chelating assay (FIC). A substantial body of research demonstrated that the combined extracts of RWE and GEE had an additive interaction in various antioxidant assays. Furthermore, a 5:1 v/v ratio of RWE and GEE demonstrated a synergistic effect in DPPH and FRAP assays. The synergistic ratio could be used to create nutraceutical formulations or various food products with antioxidant activity to prevent oxidative diseases.</p> ฉัตรทิพย์ สุนทรารักษ์ Ratchadaporn Oonsivilai Copyright (c) 2022 Food and Applied Bioscience Journal 2022-04-25 2022-04-25 10 1 13 29 CFD Simulation of Heat Conduction in Curry Paste during Sterilization <p>Curry paste is a popular food product in Thailand, made of many fresh and dry spices that are finely ground to a solid-like homogeneous blend. The four types of curry paste KangSom (KS), GreenCurry (GC), PadPed (PP) and MasMan (MM) were used as 100 g samples in glass bottles. A water-spray with pressure-balance retort was run at 116°C to thermally sterilize by eliminating pathogenic microorganisms, and to extend the shelf-life of curry paste. Time profile of temperature at the slowest heating zone (SHZ) during thermal treatment is important for estimating the sterilization value (F0). A high quality mesh discretization was use in numerical simulations. This study used CFD simulations of heat conduction in curry paste during sterilization to get the SHZ(sim), which was compared with the experimental SHZ(exp). Thermal diffusivity (α) of each curry paste was adjusted for best fit of SHZ(sim) with SHZ(exp) according to the coefficient of determination R<sup>2</sup>. The results were for KS (α=1.55x10<sup>-7</sup> m<sup>2</sup>/s, R<sup>2</sup>=0.9990), GC (α=1.55x10<sup>-7</sup> m<sup>2</sup>/s, R<sup>2</sup>=0.9989), PP (α=1.65x10<sup>-7</sup> m<sup>2</sup>/s, R<sup>2</sup>=0.9996) and MM (α=1.45x10<sup>-7</sup> m<sup>2</sup>/s, R<sup>2</sup>=0.9993). The sterilization values F0(sim) from simulation and F0(exp) from experiments were approximately equal, and so were the processing times required. In summary, CFD simulation of heat conduction can be used to describe the heat transfer in an actual food product that is solid-like and homogeneous. This study can be used as a template for guiding thermal process design by numerical simulations.</p> CHUMPHON NUMUANG Copyright (c) 2022 Food and Applied Bioscience Journal 2022-04-25 2022-04-25 10 1 43 59 Listeria monocytogenes: Prevalence and contamination profile in different categories of ready-to-eat foods within Ibadan metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria <p>The present investigation encompasses the incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in some ready-to-eat food samples, a human pathogen in the outbreak of listeriosis worldwide. A total of 104 food samples, comprising of chicken-pie, apple, shrimps, dried fish, fura, kilishi, salad and yoghurt were analyzed. Samples were tested using standard bacteriological methods to detect the presence of Listeria monocytogenes. Twenty-five suspected Listeria species were isolated from the samples except chicken pie, dried fish, yoghurt, and their percentage occurrence were 8% (kilishi), 28% (shrimps), 24% (fura), 32% (salad) and 8% (apple). Nineteen of these isolates showed α and β haemolysis, however, only 16 were positive to CAMP test, and as such, identified as L. monocytogenes. Shrimp had the highest number (6) of L. monocytogenes, followed by salad, with 5, fura had 4 and 1 from apple. The results indicated that some of the food samples analysed were contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes and posed a threat to consumers.</p> Kubrat Oyinlola Augustina Balogun Copyright (c) 2022 Food and Applied Bioscience Journal 2022-04-25 2022-04-25 10 1 1 12