Food and Applied Bioscience Journal <div> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> </div> Faculty of Agro-Industry, Chiang Mai University en-US Food and Applied Bioscience Journal 2286-8615 Biochemical Profile and Bio-Concentration of Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn in Tilapia guineensis inhabiting Lagos lagoon, Nigeria <p>This study investigated Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) in the liver tissue as well as bio-concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb and Hg in Tilapia guineensis inhabiting Lagos lagoon, Nigeria. Serum biochemical enzymes were determined using calorimetric assay and phenolphthalein monophosphate method while heavy metals by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The concentration of biochemical enzymes were in the order of ALP&gt;AST&gt;ALT. The AST and ALT ranged from 59.20 ± 21.03IU/L to <br />108.33 ± 30.48IU/L and 21.87 ± 7.49IU/L to 81.44 ± 37.09IU/L (means of <br />88.56 ± 33.38IU/L and 48.94 ± 33.48IU/L respectively) while the mean ALP in the fish was 113.55 ± 82.33IU/L (minimum and maximum of 43.47 ± 17.50IU/L and <br />183.09 ± 91.16IU/L respectively). The concentration of Cu, Zn, Hg and Pb in water was 1.88 ± 2.94mg/L, 25.49 ± 44.27mg/L, 0.00 ± 0.00mg/L and 0.25 ± 0.49mg/L respectively. Also, the concentration of Cu, Pb, Hg and Zn in T. guineensis of Lagos lagoon was 0.0093 ± 0.01mg/kg, 0.0005 ± 0.00mg/kg, 0.0000 ± 0.00mg/kg and <br />0.0248 ± 0.04mg/kg respectively. The Bio-Concentration factor was as low as <br />0.00 (Hg), 0.005 (Cu), 0.002 (Pb) and 0.001 (Zn). The result also revealed negative correlation (r= -0.06, P=0.85) between AST and Cu in fish. Similarly, ALT was significantly correlated with Cu (r=0.66, P=0.02), Pb (r= -0.59, P=0.05) and Hg <br />(r= -0.63, P=0.03) in water. This study established that metals’ concentrations imposed negative effects on the enzymes.</p> Adefemi Ajibare Olajide Loto Copyright (c) 2022 Food and Applied Bioscience Journal 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 11 3 1 11 Utilization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction for antioxidants isolation from black rice and its impact on the characteristics of chitosan films <p>Black rice bran is rich in anthocyanins and phenolic compounds, both renowned for their potent antioxidant properties. The use of ultrasound technology in combination with solvent extraction has the potential to increase the efficiency of extracting antioxidants from black rice bran. This study was conducted to investigate the optimal conditions for the extraction of antioxidants from black rice bran using ultrasonic-assisted extraction. Four key factors were examined: the rice bran-to-solvent ratio (1:13-1:27 w/v), extraction time (16-44 min), power intensity (25-95% amplitude), and pulse duration (1-9 seconds). The rice bran-to-solvent ratio and extraction duration exhibited a significant influence on DPPH radical scavenging activity, whereas power intensity and pulse duration notably impacted the total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity. The optimal extraction conditions were determined to be a 1:15 ratio of rice bran to solvent, a 20 min extraction duration, 66% amplitude, and a 3-second pulse. Under these conditions, the extraction yielded total phenolic and anthocyanin contents of 12.41 mg/g and 3.88 mg/g, respectively, with a DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50) of 63.19 mg/g. Chitosan films infused with the black rice bran extract exhibited reduced tensile strength compared to the control. The incorporation of glycerol, known to enhance film flexibility, resulted in increased elongation at break. Interestingly, the addition of the extract did not significantly alter the elongation at break but led to a decrease in L* and b* values and an increase in a* value of the chitosan films. The findings of this study demonstrate the potential for enhancing the extraction efficiency of antioxidative compounds from black rice bran through ultrasound technology, leading to the production of chitosan films incorporating black rice bran anthocyanins potentially to be utilized as a pH-sensitive indicator film</p> Kanchaphon Duanginta Supaporn Sokanket Nattapong Kanha Thunnop Laokuldilok Copyright (c) 2022 Food and Applied Bioscience Journal 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 11 3 41 55 Process optimization for foam-mat drying and physicochemical properties of leafy vegetable powder <p class="MDPI17abstract" style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-indent: 36.0pt; line-height: normal;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; font-family: 'Book Antiqua','serif';">High quantities of vegetable waste are produced worldwide during primary production, so foam-mat drying was used to add value and create products from three leafy vegetables. Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the foaming parameters. The optimal condition was 3.44% egg albumen as a foaming agent, <br />5.78 g/mL vegetable: water ratio, and 17 min of whipping time, providing response values of 95.55% foam stability, 294.70% overrun, and a foam density of 0.21 g/mL. The major factor that significantly influenced these responses was egg albumen concentration (<em>X<sub>1</sub></em>), whereas the quadratic terms of egg albumen and vegetable-water ratio (<em>X<sub>1</sub><sup>2</sup></em> and <em>X<sub>2</sub><sup>2</sup></em>) mainly affected the foam density and overrun (P&lt;0.05). The interaction between egg albumen concentration and vegetable: water ratio (<em>X<sub>1</sub>X<sub>2</sub></em>) was a critical factor that affected foam stability. Optimal drying of vegetable foam at 50°C for 1.5 h provided comparable retention to freeze-drying for vitamin C (40%) in the vegetables. The derived vegetable powder had a relatively low moisture content (1.89–6.03%) and water activity (0.26–0.34). Egg albumen and drying conditions negatively impacted on the water solubility index and water absorption index. The derived powder showed promising oil (2.55 g/g) and glucose (50–68%) absorption capacities. </span></p> Dr.Suphat Phongthai Copyright (c) 2023 Food and Applied Bioscience Journal 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 11 3 26 40 A protein-enriched rice product from Kum Doi Saket rice, and locallysourced nutrient-rich grainsfrom Northern Thailand <p>Rice, recognized as a primary source of carbohydrates, is associated with <br />a high glycemic index, potentially elevating the risk of various diseases, including obesity and diabetes. This research aims to develop a fortified extruded rice product from the low-value broken grain Kam Doi Saket rice through the enrichment of protein and phenolic compounds by the addition of Lablab beans and perilla seeds. In the experiments, the proportion of Lablab bean powder was varied at ratios of 0%, 15%, 35%, and 55%, and the best formula from the initial experiments was used to adjust the quantity of perilla seeds at ratios of 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5%. Results revealed that an increase in the proportion of Lablab beans in the product led to increase protein content, increased levels of total phenolic compounds, and enhanced antioxidant capacities in the fortified rice product. In terms of texture, this formula exhibited the highest hardness values, while cohesiveness, adhesiveness, and chewiness values were comparatively lower than those of other formulas. Moreover, the outcomes of the perilla seed application indicated that the recipe employing Kam Doi Saket rice, Lablab beans, and perilla seeds in a ratio of 42:55:3 resulted in a protein content of 17.02%, total phenolic compounds measuring 0.44 mg GAE/g, an antioxidant capacity percentage of 0.19 mgTE/g, and an overall acceptance sensory score of 5.70. <br />In conclusion, it was determined from the experiments that Lablab beans and perilla seeds can serve as suitable raw materials for the production of protein-fortified rice products from broken Kam Doi Saket Rice.</p> Pipat Tangjaidee Copyright (c) 2023 Food and Applied Bioscience Journal 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 11 3 12 25