Journal of Science and Technology CRRU <p><em>Journal of Science and Technology CRRU</em></p> <p>ISSN 2821-9333 (Online)</p> <p><strong><em>Publication Frequency : </em></strong><em>2 issues per year (January-June), (July-December).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Aims and Scope:</em></strong><em> Pure and Applied Sciences, Mathematics and Applied Mathematics</em></p> en-US <p><em>Journal of TCI is licensed under a Creative Commons </em><a href=""><em>Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)</em></a></p> (Asst. Prof. Banthot Chomsawan) (Siwapron Ploypech) Mon, 25 Dec 2023 11:59:48 +0700 OJS 60 Antioxidant Activity of Cocoa Bean Shells for the Development of Cocoa-Based Tea Products <p>This study aimed to evaluate the potential value addition of cocoa bean shells (<em>Theobroma cacao </em>L<em>.</em>) in the production of tea to promote healthy consumption. The study involved examining the amount of antioxidants in cocoa bean shells tea in comparison to cocoa beans tea. Various tea brewing methods were investigated, including boiling tea bags and steeping tea bags in hot water. Additionally, tea was extracted using a 60% ethanol solvent with the assistance of an ultrasonic machine. The results showed that cocoa beans and cocoa bean shells extract had a total phenolic content of 226.09 and 221.78 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g of dry tea, while the total flavonoid content was measured at 172.00 and 126.10 mg equivalent to quercetin/g of dry tea, and antioxidant activity was determined to be 85.77% and 86.16%, respectively. Cocoa bean shells exhibit high antioxidant activity similar to cocoa beans, with the amount being 5-10% of the extraction method. Furthermore, when preparing cocoa bean shell tea by boiling tea bags and steeping tea bags in hot water, the total phenolic content was measured at 16.27 and 22.40 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g of dry tea, the total flavonoid content at 8.01 and 4.47 mg equivalent to quercetin/g of dry tea, and the antioxidant activity at 85.76% and 75.02%, respectively, for boiling and steeping tea bags in hot water. These findings highlight the potential of utilizing cocoa bean shells for tea production, thereby enhancing the value of this discarded waste material.</p> Juntima Chungsiriporn, Prukraya Pongyeela, Nirana Chairerk Copyright (c) 2023 Chiang Rai Rajabhat University Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0700 Species diversity of Amphibians in Thara Erawan Waterfall, Mueang District, Phetchabun Province <p>The study aims to species diversity of amphibians in the area of Thara Erawan Waterfall located in Muang District, Phetchabun. The data was collected for a period of 6 months, 3-4 days per month, by both daytime and nighttime observation for a distance of 1,500 meters. The study shows 14 species of amphibians from 5 families Bufonidae 1 species, Family Microhylidae 5 species, Family Dicroglossidae 5 species, family Ranidae 2 species and family Rhacophoridae 1 species. Shannon-Wiener index (H') (H'= 2.40) were found in the place. 1 of the founded 14 species is considered as Is a protected wild animal according to Wild Animals Preservation and Protection Act B.E. 2535. According to the IUCN red list of threatened species, 2 nearly threatened species were also founded in the place.</p> Thanyarat Mutikhot, Itsara Tangsuwan Copyright (c) 2023 Chiang Rai Rajabhat University Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0700 Employees Awareness and Participation about Green Office Building in Kamphaeng Phet Rajabhat University <p>The purpose of this research was to study the awareness and participation of employees of Kamphaeng Phet Rajabhat University about Green office. Study of a sample of 265 people from employees at Kamphaeng Phet Rajabhat University using questionnaires along with statistical analysis of basic information (frequency and percentage), data analysis of information perception and participation in green offices (mean and standard deviation). Comparison of personal factors on perception and participation in green offices (t-test and One-way ANOVA). Results of the awareness and participation employees of Kamphaeng Phet Rajabhat University. Considering in terms of employees, the awareness and participation are the highest level (<img title="\bar{X}" src="\bar{X}" /> = 4.0, S.D.= 0.12) and (<img title="\bar{X}" src="\bar{X}" /> = 4.2, S.D.= 0). The result of hypothesis testing demonstrated that different working time and job positions made differences in the awareness and different working period made differences in participation of employees (P <u>&lt;</u> 0.05).</p> Apinya Nimittammasophon, Pimprapai Khaokham, Nopparat Chaivino, Wilailak Suanmali, Apichaya Phadpin, Banchongsak Faksomboon Copyright (c) 2023 Chiang Rai Rajabhat University Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0700 Comparison of Fertilizer Formulations and Amount of Fertilizer Applications of Lactuca sativa L. ‘Grand Rapids’ Growing <p>Lettuce or salad greens (<em>Lactuca sativa</em> L.), Grand Rapids variety, is a species of salad vegetable in the salad vegetable family that is commonly consumed. Provides high nutritional value, especially dietary fiber, calcium, vitamin C and vitamin A. Moreover, lettuce is economically important and has an increasing demand lead to the large number of lettuce planting. Farmers more often used chemical fertilizers than necessary. The objective of this research was to study the use of appropriate fertilizers for the growth of Grand Rapids lettuce. The experiment was carried out in a 2×2 factorial in CRD with 2 factors. The first factor was 2 fertilizer formulas, namely 15-15-15 and 14-4-24. The second factor was applying fertilizer at 2 levels, including 2 times (14 and 35 days after germination) and 3 times (14,21, and 35 days after germination) for a total of 4 combinations, 5 repetitions. Experimental data was recorded when the Grand Rapids lettuce plants were 50 days after germination. It was found that the fertilizer formulas 15-15-15 and 14-4-24 were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) in canopy height and SPAD value, while the number of times of applying fertilizer at 2 and 3 times was not significantly different (p &gt; 0.05) on the growth of salad vegetables. As for the interaction between the fertilizer formula and the number of times fertilizer was applied, it was found that there was a statistically significant difference per canopy height Chlorophyll content and fresh root weight.</p> Chanirat Phungbunhan, Natthaphon Sriyongyos, Karun Phungbunhan Copyright (c) 2023 Chiang Rai Rajabhat University Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0700 A Five-year-Retrospective Study of Parvovirus Infection in Cats Treated in the General Animal Hospital, Chiang Rai Rajabhat University (2018 – 2022) <p>This study was aimed to find out the disease prevalence and major symptoms of parvovirus infection in cats treated in The General Animal Hospital of Chiang Rai Rajabhat University over the past 5 years. This study was a retrospective longitudinal study, which was conducted by extracting of data on clinical examinations and laboratory results recorded by veterinarians between 2018 and 2022. Out of 96 cats, which were suspected of parvovirus infection, only 67 were positive to the SensPERT FPV Ag test kit (69.79%; 95%CI = 60.44 – 79.14). The 5-year-prevalence of the disease was 1.01%, compared with the total number of cats treated for different health problems in the same period (67/6,662). The prevalence of the disease was mostly found in 2019 (15/1,021 or 1.47%). The infected cats were found in every month during a year-round, approximately 2 cases/month. The cases were mostly detected between October and March of the following year (71.64%). During the peak period, approximately 8 cases were reported for a month, with the highest cases (12) reported in October. According to the records, major symptoms specified to Parvovirus infection in cats were bloody diarrhea (100%), vomiting (97.01%), and high fever (70.15%), respectively. Unfortunately, there was no history of any vaccination in all cases. This could be a predisposing factor of parvovirus infection found in this study.</p> Siddhiwasan Dolvongchantong, Supaporn Udomsup, Punnarod Pao-in, Thidarat Intasan Copyright (c) 2023 Chiang Rai Rajabhat University Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0700 Enhancement of skills on drawing of free body diagrams with Tracker program <p>The purposes of this research are to determine the effectiveness of the lesson plan and compare the average of the pre-and post-test scores of subjects who have been trained using the video by tracker program to teach physics in one-dimensional motion. Also focus on the process of drawing a free body diagram of the object to solve complex problems. The sample was used by purposive sampling consisted of 18 volunteer students from the Demonstration School of Thepsatri Rajabhat University, the 1st semester: 2023. Research tools included the lesson plan using tracker program in one-dimensional motion of an object. The results show that the effectiveness of the lesson plan is based on 80/80 criteria. It is found that the percentage of the average score, the score between the course (evaluation of experiments and exercises during the course) and after the course (learning result) is 88.33.and 82.61 respectively, and students have the ability to draw free body diagrams of post-test significantly higher than before study statistically 05.</p> Sarayut Pantian Copyright (c) 2023 Chiang Rai Rajabhat University Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0700 Derivation the equation of motion of particles from nonstandard Lagrangian with Lennard-Jones Potential <p>Derivation of the equation of motion of a particle from a nonstandard Lagrangian under the Leonard-Jones potential is presented. The objectives are to find the equation of motion of a particle under the Leonard-Jones potential by using a non-standard Lagrangian. And also discussing impact of the arbitrary time dependent function on dynamics of systems. There the arbitrary time dependent functions, 1, <img title="\large ^{t}" src="\large&amp;space;^{t}" />, <img title="\large ^{t^{2}}" src="\large&amp;space;^{t^{2}}" /> and <span style="font-size: 0.875rem;"> <img title="\large ^{e^{-1/t}}" src="\large&amp;space;^{e^{-1/t}}" /> </span>, were used. The results show that nonstandard Lagrangian, <span style="font-size: 0.875rem;"> <img title="f(\dot{r},r;t)=\xi (t)e^{L(\dot{r},r;t)}" src="\dot{r},r;t)=\xi&amp;space;(t)e^{L(\dot{r},r;t)}" /> </span>, presented by El-Nabulsi substituted ​​into the standard Lagrangian equation that will got two additional terms, which are time dependent. However, if we had reduced the modified Euler-Lagrange equation by set the arbitrary time dependent function to 1, the standard Euler-Lagrange equation can be reversed. The dynamical system obtained from simulation found that the arbitrary time dependent function effect on the dynamics of the system is only the scaling of the range of interest as observed in the order rank in the vertical axis data.</p> Sarayut Pantian Copyright (c) 2023 Chiang Rai Rajabhat University Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0700 The effects of Camellia sinensis Flower extract on the phytochemical and sensory evaluation of drinking jelly <p>The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of <em>Camellia sinensis</em> Flower extract, brewed using the Twining method, on the phytochemical and sensory evaluation of a ready-to-drink jelly product. </p> <p>The study on antioxidant efficacy revealed that Formula 4 has the highest levels of total phenolic content and flavonoid compounds, with values equivalent to 45.80 mg GAE/100 ml and 8.24 mg CE/100 ml, respectively. Regarding the analysis of antioxidant activity using DPPH and FRAP methods, Formula 4 also exhibited the highest values at 154.85 and 165.15 µmol TE/100 ml, respectively. In the sensory evaluation across all 5 aspects of drinking jelly products from <em>Camellia sinensis</em> Flower extract in the 5 formulas, it was found that Formula 4, which had tea extract at 75%, sugar at 10%, and honey at 15%, received the highest scores for aroma, taste, and overall appearance. Regarding overall preference, it was found that the taste testers favored Formula 5, which had tea extract at 80%, sugar at 9%, and honey at 11%. Additionally, it was noted that there were no significant differences in color and aroma ratings among the taste testers (p≥0.05).</p> Ratchaneekorn Pokrai, Jenjira Charoensin, Anek Halee Copyright (c) 2023 Chiang Rai Rajabhat University Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0700