Thai Journal of Forestry <p>Thai Journal of Forestry (TJF) ISSN : 2730-2180 was established in 1982 under Faculty of Forestry, Kasetsart University, Thailand, and publishes paper concerning on Forestry Research. Of special interest articles are dealing with forest ecology, forest management, forest economic, silvilculture, watershed, biological diversity conservation and morphology and physiology of vegetable and wildlife,etc.To better circulate the research from Thai and International researchers and contributing scientists to a wider audience.All submitted manuscripts have been reviewed by at least two expert reviewers via the double-blinded review system. TJF is published semi-annually (January-June and July-December).&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> คณะวนศาสตร์ มหาวิทยาลัยเกษตรศาสตร์ en-US Thai Journal of Forestry 2730-2180 <p>ข้าพเจ้าและผู้เขียนร่วม (ถ้ามี) ขอรับรองว่า ต้นฉบับที่เสนอมานี้ยังไม่เคยได้รับการตีพิมพ์และไม่ได้อยู่ในระหว่างกระบวนการพิจารณาตีพิมพ์ลงในวารสารหรือสิ่งตีพิมพ์อื่นใด ข้าพเจ้าและผู้เขียนร่วม (ถ้ามี) ยอมรับหลักเกณฑ์และเงื่อนไขการพิจารณาต้นฉบับ ทั้งยินยอมให้กองบรรณาธิการมีสิทธิ์พิจารณาและตรวจแก้ต้นฉบับได้ตามที่เห็นสมควร พร้อมนี้ขอมอบลิขสิทธิ์ผลงานที่ได้รับการตีพิมพ์ให้แก่วารสารวนศาสตร์ คณะวนศาสตร์ มหาวิทยาลัยเกษตรศาสตร์ กรณีมีการฟ้องร้องเรื่องการละเมิดลิขสิทธิ์เกี่ยวกับภาพ กราฟ ข้อความส่วนใดส่วนหนึ่ง หรือ ข้อคิดเห็นที่ปรากฏในผลงาน ให้เป็นความรับผิดชอบของข้าพเจ้าและผู้เขียนร่วม (ถ้ามี) แต่เพียงฝ่ายเดียว และหากข้าพเจ้าและผู้เขียนร่วม (ถ้ามี) ประสงค์ถอนบทความในระหว่างกระบวนการพิจารณาของทางวารสาร ข้าพเจ้าและผู้เขียนร่วม (ถ้ามี) ยินดีรับผิดชอบค่าใช้จ่ายทั้งหมดที่เกิดขึ้นในกระบวนการพิจารณาบทความนั้น”</p> Model Development and Testing for Practicing Chainsaw Skills during Pruning <p>Chainsaw usage is very common during logging operations. Using a chainsaw requires a sufficiently high level of skills as it is a job which is difficult, dirty, and dangerous (commonly known as 3D). It is imperative to use a simulation model to practice the chainsaw skills before its actual operation. We have created a model for skill training and to determine the relationship between improvement of skills and time spent on the job, as well as other elements that may have an impact on skill development. The results show that the delimbing times were not significantly different between the skilled and unskilled sample groups. According to the statistical analysis, there was no significant difference between the sample groups. However, the learning curve for the unskilled sample group indicated to a wider distribution range. The lead time tended to stabilize in 7 or 8 training rounds, compared to the skilled sample group, whose the lead time stabilized in 5 or 6 rounds. It was found that repetitive experiments resulted in better delimbing skills and a reduced time to complete the job. When the sample was segmented by gender, the difference between males and females was not statistically significant. The body mass index (BMI) classification had a statistically significant influence on the pruning time. This might be due to the chainsaw's weight causing the test subject to experience varying levels of weariness, which resulted in an increased time to complete the job, especially for those who are thin. Such a model can help subjects gain proficiency and familiarity with the chainsaw, which in turn will make it easier to efficiently manage the equipment in the field.</p> Athipong Prayoonyart Nopparat Kaakkurivaara Kiattisak Bundet Copyright (c) 2022 Thai Journal of Forestry 2022-06-27 2022-06-27 41 1 1 12 Operational Efficiency of Gasoline and Battery operated Chainsaws <p>This research compared the operational efficiency between gasoline and battery operated chainsaws under 3 different aspects; cutting speed, noise, and vibration levels. The test was performed on dried eucalyptus logs with a diameter of 13 cm. Each type of chainsaw was used on 3 randomly selected logs (replicates), and each log was cut into 10 slides (repetitions). The mean differences of each of the parameters between the types of chainsaws were tested using an Independent-samples T-test. The results showed that the average time per cycle of wood cutting for the battery operated chainsaws was significantly less than the gasoline chainsaws (p = 0.033), with a mean value of 11.57 and 12.90 seconds, respectively. The operating noise level of the battery chainsaw was significantly lower than that of the gasoline chainsaw (p &lt; 0.001), with a mean value of 81.25 and 94.65 dB(A), respectively. The mean noise level of the battery chainsaw was 15% less than the gasoline chainsaw. The operating vibration level of the battery chainsaw was statistically significant and less than that of the gasoline chainsaw (p &lt; 0.001), with a mean value of 0.19 and 1.30 m/s<sup>2</sup>, respectively. The vibration while operating a battery chainsaw was 7 times less than a gasoline chainsaw. According to the current research, we conclude that battery chainsaws can run faster and are less affected by noise and vibration than gasoline chainsaws.</p> Supamas Khamwiangsa Nopparat Kaakkurivaara Kiattisak Bundet Copyright (c) 2022 Thai Journal of Forestry 2022-06-27 2022-06-27 41 1 13 21 Tourist Satisfaction Towards Tourism Services at Ramkhamhaeng National Park, Sukhothai Province <p> The objectives of this study were to determine the socio – economic conditions, general information, satisfaction levels, and factors affecting the tourist satisfaction towards the tourism services at Ramkhamhaeng national park, Sukhothai province. Data was collected through a designed questionnaire, through which 394 Thai tourists who visited the national park were interviewed during October 2019 to September 2020. Statistical analysis was used to test various hypothesis, using a t-test and F-test at a significant level of 0.05.</p> <p> As indicated by the gender classification of the respondent, there were almost equal number of males and females, and the average age was 31 years old. The educational level was at least a bachelor’s degree/master’s degree. The main occupation was company employee with an average total household income of 834,907.66 THB per year. A majority of the tourists came from the central region and had some experiences in traveling. The objective of travel were recreation, camping, and knowledge increasing about the conservation of forest resource, as indicated by an average score of 4.14. The average score of satisfaction towards tourism services provided at the Ramkhamhaeng national park, Sukhothai province was 3.87. The analysis also indicated that the average difference in the satisfaction towards tourism services at the national park were mostly due to traveling and gaining knowledge about forest resource conservation.</p> Samran Thongkerd Kittichai Rattana Apichart Pattaratuma Copyright (c) 2022 Thai Journal of Forestry 2022-06-27 2022-06-27 41 1 22 34 Effect of Land Use Type on Water Quality in the Lam Phachi Sub-watershed <p>This research aimed to study the effects of agricultural and forested land using on the level of water quality at the Lam Phachi sub-watershed. Eight water quality parameters were collected and analyzed during both wet and dry periods in 2018 and were compared with the surface water quality standard. Additionally, the water quality was determined by comparing with the Water Quality Index (WQI). From the results, it was found that temperature, pH, DO, nitrate, and phosphate content of the forested sub-watershed, agricultural sub-watershed and outlet of Lam Phachi sub-watershed were at the second typed of the surface water standard during both the wet and dry periods. However, the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) of agricultural sub-watershed and total coliform bacteria of the outlet were higher than the surface water standard during the wet period. Moreover, the total suspended sediment in the agricultural sub-watershed and outlet, during the wet period, was greater than of the forested sub-watershed. Water quality assessment through the water quality index (WQI) indicated that water quality of the forested sub-watershed was at an acceptable level during both the wet and dry periods, but that in the agricultural sub-watershed and outlet was poor during the wet period and slightly better during the dry period. It can be concluded that agricultural land use in the Lam Phachi sub-watershed has affected the suspended sediment and BOD levels. Hence, soil and water conservation should be managed accordingly to reduce surface runoff and soil erosion in the sub-watershed.</p> Patchares Chacuttrikul Supattra Thueksathit Naruemol Kaewjampa Kittima Tongrob Copyright (c) 2022 Thai Journal of Forestry 2022-06-27 2022-06-27 41 1 35 47 Successional Status of Plant Communities of Different Ages in Rubber Plantations at Songkhla and Phattalung Provinces <p>Almost all para rubber plantations in Thailand are under monoculture practice, with only a few rubber farmers interested to adopt rubber-based agroforestry practices. Information of native trees which can grow well in a rubber plantation is limited. This research aimed to study the successional status of different-aged plant communities in para rubber plantations. Ten to 77 plots of 10m x 10m size of each were used as sample plots at each study site. In each plot, the diameter at breast height of all trees with a stem diameter of at least 1cm were measured at three locations: (1) near Payang restaurant (successional time 10-12 years), (2) Tamod district (22 year old), and plant conservation area (40 year old). Importance value index (IVI) of the existing species and species diversity index was calculated. Plant community structure varied between the sampled sites. Species with high IVI values varied with each site, site 1; <em>Microcos tomentosa</em>, <em>Cleistanthus polyphyllus</em>, and <em>Mesua kunstleri</em>, site 2; <em>Garcinia merguensis</em>, <em>Decaspermum parviflorum</em>, and <em>Syzygium grande</em>, sites 3; <em>Mesua kunstleri</em>, <em>Microcos tomentosa,</em> and <em>Syzygium lineatum</em>. <em>Litsea grandis,</em> <em>Calophyllum calaba</em>, and <em>Cinnamomum iners</em> were found on all sites. Similarity in plant communities increased with age with the older successional stands being very similar. The diversity index was influenced by distance from natural forest and age of succession. Relative densities of zoochory plants at these sites varied in a range of 50-85% in each plant community. We recommend that certain successional tree species with high IVI and species diversity index in the Tamod district can be planted in rubber plantations with poor soil conditions and low pH.</p> Sara Bumrungsri Charan Leeratiwong Copyright (c) 2022 Thai Journal of Forestry 2022-06-27 2022-06-27 41 1 48 62 Community Approach to Participatory Forest Plantation Management: A Case Study of the Khlong Takrao Plantation <p> This research aimed to study the opinions and participation of local people towards the management of the Khlong Takrao forest plantation and to analyze the participation approaches to plantation management. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, a questionnaire survey using multi-stage sampling of 4 in 7 local communities with 274 respondents and focus groups discussion. Data was analyzed using the SWOT analysis technique and TOWS Matrix method.</p> <p> The findings indicated that the level of people participation was low (23%) and the level of opinion to benefits from the forest plantation was moderate ( <img title="\bar{x}" src="\bar{x}" /> =3.13 <img title="\pm" src="\pm" />0.94). However, the level of expectation related to operations in the forest plantation was high (<img title="\bar{x}" src="\bar{x}" /> =3.55<img title="\pm" src="\pm" /> 0.80), the relationship between the forest plantation and local community was also high ( <img title="\bar{x}" src="\bar{x}" /> = 3.47<img title="\pm" src="\pm" /> 0.83), and the participation in forest plantation management was high ( <img title="\bar{x}" src="\bar{x}" /> = 3.51<img title="\pm" src="\pm" /> 0.81). The results of SWOT Analysis and TOWS Matrix define 7 principal approaches to increase the involvement in forest plantation management, namely 1) developing forest plantation areas as tourist attractions, 2) promoting participatory forest plantation management, 3) developing participatory forest management plans, 4) developing communication systems, 5) building community capacity, 6) integrating management with local authorities, and 7) strengthening the monitoring and evaluation of forest plantations management.</p> <p> </p> Kornnika Wongmittae Rachanee Pothitan Nikhom Laemsak Copyright (c) 2022 Thai Journal of Forestry 2022-06-27 2022-06-27 41 1 63 77 Development of a Spatial Database System for Land Occupation Management in Khaopu-Khaoya National Park <p><strong> </strong>We present the development of a spatial database system for land occupation management in Khaopu-Khaoya national park. The aim to design such system lies in the need to avoid data redundancy, systematically store and manage information, and ease of usage. Through the development of the database system, we measured the user satisfaction of using the system to monitor the land occupation management in the national park. The design included collection of data, design and creation of the database system (conceptually, logically, and physically), ground check survey, testing the database system, and finally its application in real world management. The results of this study can be used in two ways: 1) a design based on relational database, collecting data in the form of Geodatabase, processed through a GIS program, consisting of 6 databases, 2) online map presentation processed through the Google My Maps program, with area need for an active internet connection to access the database. At present, the users can only view the land under use and the boundary of Khaopu-Khaoya national park. After the completion of test phase of the spatial database system, through a feedback of 100 officials of Khaopu-Khaoya national park, we obtained an average satisfaction score of 4.21, considered a very good score.</p> Chonnikan Khamwarut Laddawan Rianthakool Chakrit Na Thakuathung Copyright (c) 2022 Thai Journal of Forestry 2022-06-27 2022-06-27 41 1 78 89 Some Soil Physical Properties and Soil Water Storage Capacity in Mixed Deciduous Forest and Maize Fields at Na Luang Sub-watershed, Nan Province <p>The study of some soil physical properties and its water storage capacity was analyzed to determine the physical properties influencing soil water storage capacity. We compared the soil moisture holding capacity (SM<sub>whc</sub>) and soil moisture saturated soil conditions (SM<sub>sat</sub>) in a mixed deciduous forest and area under maize crop at the Na Luang sub-watershed, Nan province. The results indicated that the mixed deciduous forest had a significantly greater amount of organic matter in the soil and higher soil porosity relative to the area under maize crop (<em>p</em>≤0.05). For both the soil moisture properties (soil water holding capacity; SM<sub>whc</sub> and saturated soil moisture; SM<sub>sat</sub>), we observed that mixed deciduous forest areas had a higher soil water storage capacity than area under the maize crop (288.02 and 336.71 cubic meters per rai, respectively). As for the area under maize crop, soil water storage capacity was 268.94 and 318.43 cubic meters per rai, respectively. The soil water storage capacity was highly positively correlated with the total porosity of the soil, soil organic matter, and clay percentage but a statistically significant negative relationship was determined with the soil bulk density.</p> Ratchaneekorn Lekprasoet Venus Tuankrua Yutthapong Kheereemangkla Copyright (c) 2022 Thai Journal of Forestry 2022-06-27 2022-06-27 41 1 90 101 Assessment of Prunus cerasoides D. Don Trees in Phu Lom Lo Area, Phu Hin Rong Kla National Park, Phitsanulok Province <p> This research aimed to survey and assessed the <em>Prunus cerasoides</em> D. Don trees growing in Phu Lom Lo, Phu Hin Rong Kla National Park, Phitsanulok province. The endeavor was to establish a basic database of trees to be used by the respective department during planning of maintenance activities of trees. According to the study, tree assessment methods were chosen to assess conditions of <em>P. cerasoides</em> in Phu Lom Lo. Data field were collected by applying and modifying from problematic conditions in different parts of trees and to assess the risk that will affect the damage if <em>P. cerasoides</em> fell or death by using ISA (International Society Arborist) basic tree assessment criteria.</p> <p> The survey results show that the number of <em>Prunus cerasoides</em> D. Don trees in the area were 19,365, with 398 trees having issues with their trunk and branches, as assessed according to the criteria. The trunk assessment showed that 6 trees were at extreme risk (1.51%), 63 trees at high risk (15.83%), 137 trees at medium risk (34.42%), and 192 trees were at low risk (48.24%). The branch assessment found no trees at extreme or high risk, but there were 3 trees at medium risk (18.75%) and 13 trees at low risk (81.25%). The main problem afflicting the trees at risk were missing bark, cankers/galls, cavity, prolific ivy, decay, leaning in the trunk, which was likely to cause future damage. Therefore, there should be an urgent management plan in extreme risk first with consult the professional or arborist.</p> Adisorn Khunwichai Teeka Yotapakdee Monton Norsangsri Torlarp Kamyo Copyright (c) 2022 Thai Journal of Forestry 2022-06-27 2022-06-27 41 1 102 115 Comparison of Timber Volumes during Teak Bed Production between Wiang Thong and Mee Kong Factories in Sung Men District, Phrae Province <p> The aim of this study was to compare the wood volume, loss volume of wood, and product price of teak furniture production in Wiang Thong and Mee Kong wood factories, Sung Men district, Phrae province, Thailand. Ten samples were collected through a questionnaire for surveying and collecting general data, manufacturing data, and price data from the two factories with 3 replications. The results show that 75.00 percent of the employees in Wiang Thong wood factory had worked around 6-10 years more than those in the Mee Kong wood factory (average for 35.00 percent). Around 80.00 percent of employee in the Mee Kong factory were males, with 80.00 percent between the ages of 30-39, 80.00 percent having primary education, with around 80.00 percent receiving a monthly salary between 10,000-20,000 Baht/month. This was on average 5.00 percent more than that of the employees in Wiang Thong wood factory. Wiang Thong wood factory had an average loss volume of 18.96 percent more than Mee Kong wood factory (average of 5.88 percent). The Mee Kong wood factory had an average lumber volume of 86.92 percent more than Wiang Thong wood factory (average of 5.88 percent), with the Wiang Thong factory having an average profit price of 18.96 percent more than Mee Kong wood factory (average of 3.12 percent). Wiang Thong wood factory had an average loss volume and an average profit price more than Mee Kong wood factory but Mee Kong wood factory had an average lumber volume more than Wiang Thong wood factory.</p> Thiti Wanishdilokratn Siriluk Sukjareon Itsaree Howpinjai Torlarp Kamyo Chanasak Wiangtong Copyright (c) 2022 Thai Journal of Forestry 2022-06-27 2022-06-27 41 1 116 126 Effect of Land Use Change on Streamflow of Mae Nam Khuan and Nam Pi Sub-watersheds in Nan and Phayao Provinces <p> This research investigated the land use, streamflow, and the effect of land use changes on streamflow of Mae Nam Khuan and Nam Pi Sub-Watershed in Nan and Phayao provinces. Land use data from 6 years, namely 2001, 2007, 2009, 2012, 2015 and 2018 and meteorological and hydrological data during 2000-2019 were used. The data were analyzed for land use change, rainfall, streamflow, specific water yield, and the relationships between land use and streamflow.</p> <p> The results indicated that during 2001-2018, the forest area at Mae Nam Khuan and Nam Pi Sub-Watershed decreased by 11.38 and 4.9 percent of total area, respectively. The most land use change was from forested area to agricultural area, while the urban and water source areas were little change. Averages annual streamflow of Mae Nam Khuan and Nam Pi Sub-Watersheds were 398.08 and 167.95 MCM, which were a specific water yield of 457,170.34 and 255,815.25 m<sup>3</sup>/year/km<sup>2</sup>, respectively. Additionally, the runoff coefficients at the sub-watersheds were 0.41 and 0.25, respectively.</p> <p> Considering the relationships between land use and streamflow quantity in the studied area, the land use changed from forest to agricultural area did not influence the streamflow significantly as the forested area in the sub-watershed during the study period remained more than 70 percent of the total area.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> Anongnat Borrabut Somnimirt Pukngam Yutthapong Kheereemangkla Copyright (c) 2022 Thai Journal of Forestry 2022-06-27 2022-06-27 41 1 127 138 Physical and Mechanical Properties of Eucalyptus Wood Clone K7 <p> Eucalyptus is one of the most popular commercial woods in Thailand. It is an important raw material for various wood industries. Utilization in the form of sawn timber is limited, due to lack of basic information, given that Eucalyptus clone K7 is widely planted since it grows fast. The research objective of this study was to determine the physical and mechanical properties of Eucalyptus clone K7 as basic data for utilization in the form of sawn timber. The physical properties of K7, i.e., average specific gravity under oven dry condition was 0.52, fiber saturation point averaged between 26 to 28 %, maximum shrinkage in tangential, radial, and longitudinal direction was 11.00, 7.00 and 0.65 %, respectively per moisture content decrease from fiber saturation point to 0 % and desorption isotherm. The mechanical properties, i.e., modulus of rupture was 72.45 MPa, modulus of elasticity was 6,654 MPa, compression parallel to grain was 41.94 MPa, compression perpendicular to grain was 5.33 MPa, hardness was 3,075 N, cleavage and nail holdings were 2.00 and 17.91 N/mm, respectively. Mechanical properties were compared with wood standard used for the structure and it was found that the clone K7 is not suitable for use in the main structure of a building. It can be used for furniture, buttress, flooring, pallet, wood chips for pulp industry, wood composites industry, firewood, and charcoal.</p> Wiwat Hanvongjirawat Copyright (c) 2022 Thai Journal of Forestry 2022-06-27 2022-06-27 41 1 139 150