The Effect of Stocking Density on Growth Parameters of All-Male Nile Tilapia Fry Nursed in Hapas

Main Article Content

Wirat Jiwyam
Ratchaneegorn Mapanao


Sex-reversed all-male Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry (mean weight 0.15 g) were stocked at six densities (12, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 fish.m-2) in hapas (2 x 3 x 1.2 m) placed in a 400 m2 earthen pond. Fish were fed with mixed-feed containing 32.9% crude protein and 9.5% crude fat. After six weeks, mean weights were 29.32±0.17, 19.05±0.07, 14.80±0.57, 10.20±0.14, 5.80±0.57 and 4.65±0.35 g, respectively. Specific growth rates were 12.44±0.79, 11.43±0.69, 10.80±0.85, 9.87±0.95, 8.41±1.18 and 7.83±, respectively. The negative relationship between stocking density and specific growth rate was expressed as SGR = 15.887-1.354lnD (r2 = 0.9870, p = 0.00). Low feed conversion ratios were achieved at low stocking densities (12 to 50 fish.m-2) and increased at the high stocking densities of 200 and 400 fish.m-2. The highest condition factor was found at the lowest stocking density (12 fish.m-2) and lowest condition factor was found with the high stocking densities of 200 and 400 fish.m-2. The highest coefficient of weight variance was also achieved at 200 and 400 fish.m-2, while less size variation was found with stocking between 12 and 100 fish.m-2. The stocking density of 100 fish.m-2 was apparently an optimum density for nursing all-male Nile tilapia fry in hapas. This density also resulted in the highest standing crop of Nile tilapia fingerlings in hapas at 1.01 kg.m-2.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details



1. Abdel-Tawwab, M., Y.A.E. Khattab, M.H. Ahmad and A.M.E. Shalaby. 2006. Compensatory growth, feed utilization, whole-body composition, and hematological changes in starved juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Journal of Applied Aquaculture 18: 17-36.

2. AOAC. (1990). Official Methods of Analysis, 15th edn. Washington, DC.Barman, B.K. and D.C. Little. 2011. Use of hapa to produce Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) seed in household food fish ponds: A participatory trial with small-scale farming households in Northwest Bangladesh. Aquaculture 317: 214-222.

3. Dambo, W.B. and K.J. Rana. 1992. Effects of stocking density on growth and survival of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) fry in the hatchery. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management 23: 71-80.

4. Derun, Y. and A. Yakupitiyage. 1998. Compensatory growth of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The Fifth Asian Fisheries Forum-Fisheries and Food Security beyond the Year 2000. Asian Fisheries Society, Chiang Mai, Thailand. p. 333.

5. El-Sayed A. 2002. Effects of stocking density and feeding levels on growth and feed conversion efficiency of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry. Aquaculture Research 33: 621-626.

6. El-Sayed, A.-F.M. 2006. Tilapia Culture. CABI Publishing, Cambridge, USA.

7. Felley, J.D. 1984. Multivariate identification of morphological environmental relationships within the Cyprinidae (Pisces). Copeia 1984: 442-455.

8. Fessehaye, Y., M. Rezk, H. Bovenhuis and H. Komen. 2004. Size dependent cannibalism in juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). In: 6th International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture (ISTA) – New Dimensions on Farmed Tilapia (ed. R. Bolivar, G. Mair and K. Fitzsimmons), pp. 230–240. Manila, Philippines.

9. Gall, G.A.E. and Y. Bakar. 1999. Stocking density and tank size in the design of breed improvement programs for body size of tilapia. Aquaculture 173: 197-205.

10. Grant, J.W.A. 1997. Territoriality. In: Behavioral Ecology of Teleost Fishes (ed. J.G.J. Godin), pp. 81-103. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford.

11. Guerrero, R.D. and A.M. Garcia. 1983. Study on the fry production of Sarotherodon niloticus in a lake-based hatchery. In: Proceedings of International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture (ed. L. Fishelson and Z. Yaron), pp. 388-393. Tel Aviv University, Telviv, Israel.

12. Haitook, T., S. Kosy and D.C. Little. 1999. New approaches on fish seed supply. Appropriate Technology 25(4): 26-27.

13. Haylor, G.S. 1991. Controlled hatchery production of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822): growth and survival of fry at high stocking density. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management 22: 405-422.

14. Hengsawat, K, F.J. Ward and P. Jaruratjamorn. 1997. The effect of stocking density on yield, growth and mortality of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822) cultured in cages. Aquaculture 152: 67-76.

15. Huang, W.B. and T.S. Chiu. 1997. Effects of stocking density on survival, growth, size variation, and production of Tilapia fry. Aquaculture Research 28: 165-173.

16. Hughes, D.G. and L.L. Behrends. 1983. Mass production of Tilapia nilotica seed in suspended net enclosures. In: Proceedings of International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture (ed. L. Fishelson and Z. Yaron), pp. 394-401. Tel Aviv University, Telviv, Israel.

17. Jobling, M. 1994. Fish Bioenergetics. Chapman and Hall, London.

18. Kebus, M.J., M.T. Collins, M.S. Brownfield, C.H. Amundson, T.B. Kayes and J.A. Malison. 1992. Effects of rearing density on stress response and growth of rainbow trout. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 4: 1-6.

19. Leatherland, J.F. and C.Y. Cho. 1985. Effect of rearing density on thyroid and interregnal gland activity and plasma hepatic metabolite levels in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, Richardson. Journal of Fish Biology 27: 583-592.

20. Little, D.C., N.L. Innes-Taylor, D. Turongruang and S. Komolmart. 1991. Large seed for small-scale aquaculture. Aquabyte 4(2): 2-3.

21. Little, D.C., R.C. Bhujel and T.A. Pham. 2003. Advanced nursing of mixed-sex and mono-sex tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry, and its impact on subsequent growth in fertilized ponds. Aquaculture 221: 265-276.

22. Little, D.C., D.J. Macintosh and P. Edwards. 1993. Improving spawning synchrony in the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Aquaculture Research 24: 319-325.

23. Macintosh, D.J. and S.S. De Silva. 1984. The influence of stocking density and food ration on fry survival and growth in Oreochromis mossambicus and O. niloticus female x O. aureus male hybrids reared in a closed circulated system. Aquaculture 41: 345-358.

24. Muir, G.C. and D.C. Little. 1991. Population control in farmed tilapias. NAGA, the ICLARM Quarterly 4(2): 8-13.

25. Rahman, M.M., M.S. Islam, G.C. Halder and M. Tanaka. 2006. Cage culture of sutchi catfish, Pangasius sutchi (Fowler 1937): effects of stocking density on growth, survival, yield and farm profitability. Aquaculture Research 37: 33-39.

26. Rana, K.J. 1981. Effects of rearing conditions, age and size on performance of normal hormone-treated Sarotherodon mossambicus fry, with observations on fry abnormalities. MSc thesis, University of Stirling, UK.

27. Ridha, M.T. 2006. Comparative study of growth performance of three strains of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, L. at two stocking densities. Aquaculture Research 37: 172-179.

28. Siddiqui, A.Q., A.H. Al-Harbi and Y.S. Hafedh. 1997. Effects of stocking density on patterns of reproduction and growth of hybrid tilapia in concrete tanks in Saudi Arabia. Asian Fisheries Science 10: 41-49.

29. Sin, A.W. and M.T. Chiu. 1983. The intensive monoculture of the tilapia hybrid, Sarotherodon nilotica (males) x S. mossambica (females) in Hong Kong. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture (ed. L. Fishelson Z. Yaron), pp. 506-516. Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

30. Shirota, A. 1978. Studies on the mouth size of fish larvae. II. Specific characteristics of the upper jaw length. Bulletin of the Japanese Society for the Science of Fish 44: 1171-1177.

31. Smith, C. 1989. An investigation into the problem of conspecific predation among the fry of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1775) in an intensive culture system. MSc thesis, Plymouth Polytechnic.

32. Wang, Y., Y. Cui, Y. Yang and F. Cai. 2000. Compensatory growth in hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus×O. niloticus, reared in seawater. Aquaculture 189: 101-108.

33. Watanabe, W.O., J.H. Clark, J.B. Dunhkam, R.I. Wicklund and B.L. Olla. 1990. Culture of Florida red tilapia in marine cages: the effects of stocking density and dietary protein on growth. Aquaculture 90: 123-134.

34. Yi, Y., C.K. Lin and J.S. Diana. 1996. Influence of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) stocking density in cages on their growth and yield in cages and in ponds containing the cages. Aquaculture 146: 205-215.