Main Article Content
The mangrove clam, Polymesoda erosa is among the commercially important bivalve species in Marudu Bay, Malaysia. However, a recent study has shown that this species experiences a high level of fishing exploitation. To sustain this species, one potential strategy is to restock hatchery-produced seeds through sea ranching. However, this requires the successful artificial production of seeds, which currently has not been achieved. The present study was conducted to determine the sex ratio and maturity level of different shell length classes of the clam to guide the selection of broodstock for artificial propagation in the future. A total of 240 mangrove clam specimens were randomly collected from the mangrove swamps in Marudu Bay and sorted into four shell length classes: 5.50-6.49 cm, 6.50-7.49 cm, 7.50-8.49 cm and 8.5-9.49 cm. The clams were subjected to gonad histological examination and condition analysis. Results showed that the natural stock of clams exhibited close to a 1:1 male-to-female sex ratio with no hermaphroditism observed. Clams within the 5.50-8.49 cm shell length classes had high gonad index, indicating that most of the clams at this size are fully mature. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference (p = 0.027) in condition index between two shell length classes: 5.50-6.49 cm and 7.50-8.49 cm. This could be attributed to differences in energy utilization; young clams utilize more energy for growth, whereas adult clams utilize energy for growth, reproduction, and metabolic maintenance. This study suggests that using mangrove clams with shell length between 5.50 cm and 8.49 cm will likely result in high spawning success in an artificial breeding program.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
2. Arcgis. 2020. Map for Sabah. https://www.arcgis.com/apps/webappviewer/index.html?id=3d52351878664f5f87cbd28b91fbab5a. Cited 17 Nov 2020.
3. Bahr, L. and R.E. Hillman. 1967. Effects of repeated shell damage on gametogenesis in the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin). Proceedings of the National Shellfish Association 1967: 59-62.
4. Breton, S., C. Capt, D. Guerraand and D. Stewart. 2018. Sex-determining mechanisms in bivalves. In: Transitions between Sexual Systems (ed. J. Leonard), pp. 165-192. Springer, New York, USA.
5. Buchanan, S. 2001. Measuring reproductive condition in the Greenshell™ mussel Perna canaliculus. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 35(5): 859-870.
6. Chávez-Villalba, J., A. Hernández-Ibarra, M.R. López-Tapia and J.M. Mazón-Suástegui. 2008. Prospective culture of the cortez oyster Crassostrea corteziensis from Northwestern Mexico: growth, gametogenic activity, and condition Index. Journal of Shellfish Research 27(4): 711-720.
7. Clemente, S. and B. Ingole. 2009. Gametogenic development and spawning of the mud clam, Polymesoda erosa (Solander, 1876) at Chorao Island, Goa. Marine Biology Research 5(2): 109-121.
8. Denil, D.J., C.F. Fui and J. Ransangan. 2017. Health risk assessment due to heavy metals exposure via consumption of bivalves harvested from Marudu Bay, Malaysia. Open Journal of Marine Science 7(4): 494-510.
9. Dolorosa, R.G. and F. Dangan-Galon. 2014. Population dynamics of the mangrove clam Polymesoda erosa (Bivalvia: Corbiculidae) in Iwahig, Palawan, Philippines. International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies 1(6): 11-15.
10. Dridi, S., M.S. Romdhane and M.H. Elcafsi. 2014. Gametogenic cycle of Crassostrea gigas in contrasting Mediterranean habitats: marine (Gulf of Tunis) and continental (Bizert Lagoon) culture sites. Journal of Biological Research-Thessaloniki 21(1): 13-24. DOI: 10.1186/2241-5793-21-13.
11. Duinker, A., L. Håland, P. Hovgaard and S. Mortensen. 2008. Gonad development and spawning in one and two year old mussels (Mytilus edulis) from Western Norway. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 88(7): 1465-1473.
12. Expatgo. 2020. Political map of Malaysia. https://expatgo.com/my/2015/09/02/8-maps-for-malaysia/. Cited 17 Nov 2020.
13. Filgueira, R., L. Comeau, T. Landry, J. Grant, T. Guyondet and A. Mallet. 2013. Bivalve condition index as an indicator of aquaculture intensity: a meta-analysis. Ecological Indicators 25: 215-229.
14. Gagné, F., C. Blaise, J. Pellerin, E. Pelletier, M. Douville, S. Gauthier-Clercand and L. Viglino. 2003. Sex alteration in soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria) in an intertidal zone of the Saint Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology 134(2): 189-198.
15. Gimin, R., L. Thinh, R. Mohanand and A.D. Griffiths. 2005. Aspects of the reproductive biology of Polymesoda erosa (Solander, 1786) (Bivalvia: Corbiculidae) in Northern Australia. The Beagle 21: 37-46.
16. Hamli, H., A.A. Rahim, M.H. Idris, A.H.M. Kamal and K.S. Wong. 2015. Morphometric variation among three local mangrove clam species of Corbiculidae. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology 37(1): 15-20.
17. Hamli, H., M.H. Idris, M.K.A. Hena and A.H. Rajaee. 2019. Fisheries assessment, gametogenesis and culture practice of local bivalve. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science 42(1): 103-124.
18. Hassan, M.M., J.G. Qinand and X. Li. 2017. Gametogenesis, sex ratio and energy metabolism in Ostrea angasi: implications for the reproductive strategy of spermcasting marine bivalves. Journal of Molluscan Studies 84(1): 38-45.
19. Howard, D.W., E.J. Lewis, B.J. Keller and C.S. Smith. 2004. Histological Techniques for Marine Bivalve Mollusks and Crustaceans. NOAA Technical Memorandum, NOS NCCOS, Oxford. 218 pp.
20. Idris, M.H., A.A. Rahim, H. Hamili, M.H. Nesarul and M.K.A. Hena. 2017. Determination of gonad development of mangrove clam Polymesoda expansa (Mousson 1849) by histological classification. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 12(4): 168-176.
21. Khafage, A.R., F.A.A. Razek, S.M. Taha, H.A. Omar, M.A. Attallah and R.S. El-Deeb. 2019. Gonadal cycle and spawning of date mussel Lithophaga lithophaga (L.) (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) in Egyptian water. The Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research 45(3): 293-299.
22. King, P., D. McGrath and E. Gosling. 1989. Reproduction and settlement of Mytilus edulis on an exposed rocky shore in Galway Bay, west coast of Ireland. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 69(2): 355-365.
23. Litulo, C. 2005. Reproductive biology of the hairy crab Pilumnus vespertilio (Brachyura: Pilumnidae) in the East Africa region. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 85: 877-81.
24. Liu, G., M. Shu, X. Chai, Y. Shao, H. Wu, C. Sun and S. Yang. 2014. Effect of chronic sublethal exposure of major heavy metals on filtration rate, sex ratio, and gonad development of a bivalve species. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 92(1): 71-74.
25. Ouréns, R., J. Freire and L. Fernández. 2012. Definition of a new unbiased gonad index for aquatic invertebrates and fish: Its application to the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Aquatic Biology 17(2): 145-152.
26. Park, J.J., Y.K. Shin, S.S. Hung, N. Romano, Y.P. Cheon and J.W. Kim. 2015. Reproductive impairment and intersexuality in Gomphina veneriformis (Bivalvia: Veneridae) by the tributyltin compound. Animal Cells and Systems 19(1): 61-68.
27. Ransangan, J. and T.K. Soon. 2018. Occurrence and distribution of marsh clam, Polymesoda spp. in Marudu Bay, Sabah, Malaysia. Open Journal of Marine Science 8(2): 314-322.
28. Ransangan, J., T.K. Soon and L. Duisan. 2019. Population dynamics of marsh clam, Polymesoda spp. (Bivalvia: Corbiculidae) in Marudu Bay, Malaysia. Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation and Legislation 12(2): 395-403.
29. Rodríguez-Jaramillo, C., M. Hurtado, E. Romero-Vivas, J. Ramírez, M. Manzano and E. Palacios. 2008. Gonadal development and histochemistry of the Tropical oyster, Crassostrea corteziensis (Hertlein, 1951) during an annual reproductive cycle. Journal of Shellfish Research 27(5): 1129-1142.
30. Sahin, C., E. Düzgüneş and İ. Okumuş. 2006. Seasonal variations in condition index and gonadal development of the introduced blood cockle Anadara inaequivalvis (Bruguiere, 1789) in the southeastern Black Sea Coast. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 6: 155-163.
31. Sing, O.F. and J. Ransangan. 2019. Effect of physicochemical parameters and phytoplankton composition on growth performance of green mussel (Perna viridis) in Ambong Bay and Marudu Bay, Sabah, Malaysia. Journal of Fisheries and Environment 43(1): 50-68.
32. Stenyakina, A., L. Walters, E. Hoffman and C. Calestani. 2010. Food availability and sex reversal in Mytella charruana, an introduced bivalve in the southeastern United States. Molecular Reproduction and Development: Incorporating Gamete Research 77(3): 222-230.
33. Taib, A.M., J. Madin and J. Ransangan. 2016. Density, recruitment and growth performance of Asian green mussel (Perna viridis) in Marudu Bay, northeast Malaysian Borneo, three years after a massive mortality event. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology 38(6): 631-639.
34. Tan, K.S. and J. Ransangan. 2016. Effects of environmental conditions and nutrients on the occurrence and distribution of potential harmful phytoplankton in mesotrophic water. Sains Malaysiana 45(6): 865-877.
35. Thien, F.Y. and A.S.K. Yong. 2017. Effect of different maturation diets on reproductive performance of the broodstock of purple mangrove crab, Scylla tranquebarica. Borneo Journal of Marine Science and Aquaculture 1: 44-50.
36. Walker, C.W., T. Unuma and M.P. Lesser. 2007. Gametogenesis and reproduction of sea urchins. In: Edible Sea Urchins: Biology and Ecology (ed. J.M. Lawrence), pp. 11-33. Elsevier Science, India.
37. Walne, P.R. 1976. Experiments on the culture in the sea of the butterfish Venerupis decussata L. Aquaculture 8: 371-381.
38. Wang, C. and R.P. Croll. 2004. Effects of sex steroids on gonadal development and gender determination in the sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus. Aquaculture 238(1-4): 483-498.
39. Wilson, J.H. and R. Seed. 1974. Reproduction in Mytilus edulis L. (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in Carlingford Lough, Northern Ireland. Irish Fisheries Investigations (Series B) 15: 3-30.
40. Yurimoto, T., Y. Mori, S. Ito and Y. Maeno. 2008. Reproductive cycle of the subcrenated ark shell Scapharca kagoshimensis (Tokunaga, 1906) in Ariake Bay, Japan. Journal of Shellfish Research 27(5): 1101-1108.
41. Zapata-Restrepo, L.M., C. Hauton, I.D. Williams, A.C. Jensen and M.D. Hudson. 2019. Effects of the interaction between temperature and steroid hormones on gametogenesis and sex ratio in the European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular and Integrative Physiology 236: 110523. DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2019.06.023.