Main Article Content
A single-stage aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) has been developed as an efficient and compact system for aquaculture wastewater treatment. In this study, the role of sponge media in an MBR treating synthetic aquaculture wastewater was investigated. The MBR was operated at a hydraulic retention time of 4 h and its treatment performance during the operation with and without sponge media was compared. During 120 days of operation, there was no significant effect of sponge media on the organic, ammonium or organic nitrogen removal observed in the MBR. High organic removal was achieved, i.e. 98.3 % for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and 85.2 % for chemical oxygen demand (COD), whereas ammonium and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal was 98.5 % and 88.3 %, respectively. Nevertheless, the integration of attached biomass on sponge media helped by significantly improving total nitrogen (TN) removal from 38.7 % to 53.4 % through enhanced denitrification activity of the MBR biomass, even though it was operated under aerobic conditions. Batch experiments confirmed higher denitrification activity (0.58 mg·g-1·h-1) of attached biomass than suspended biomass (0.23 mg·g-1·h-1). Higher first-order nitrification rate was observed in suspended biomass (0.21 h-1) than in attached biomass (0.12 h-1), whereas denitrification rate was higher in attached biomass (0.14 h-1) than in suspended biomass (0.063 h-1). The MBR with sponge media can be considered as an alternative treatment system for controlling water pollution in a recirculating aquaculture system where available land area for wastewater treatment is limited.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
2. Ammary, B.Y. 2004. Nutrients requirements in biological industrial wastewater treatment. African Journal of Biotechnology 3(4): 236–238.
3. Bôto, M., C.M.R. Almeida and A.P Mucha. 2016. Potential of constructed wetlands for removal of antibiotics from saline aquaculture effluents. Water 8: 465. DOI: 10.3390/w8100465.
4. Cao, L., W. Wang, Y. Yang, C. Yang, Z. Yuan, S. Xiong and J. Diana. 2007. Environmental impact of aquaculture and countermeasures to aquaculture pollution in China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 14: 452–462.
5. Chae, K.J., S.M. Kim, S.E. Oh, X. Ren, J. Lee and I.S. Kim. 2012. Spatial distribution and viability of nitrifying, denitrifying and ANAMMOX bacteria in biofilms of sponge media retrieved from a full-scale biological nutrient removal plant. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering 35: 1157–1165.
6. Chiam, C.K. and R. Sarbatly. 2011. Purification of aquacultural water: conventional and new membrane-based techniques. Separation and Purification Reviews 40: 126–160.
7. Chiemchaisri, C. and C. Liamsangoun. 2004. Simultaneous organic stabilization and nitrogen removal in multi-stage biodrum system. Water Science and Technology 50(6): 95–101.
8. Chu, L. and J. Wang. 2011. Comparison of polyurethane foam and biodegradable polymer as carriers in moving bed biofilm reactor for treating wastewater with a low C/N ratio. Chemosphere 83: 63–68.
9. Crab, R., Y. Avnimelech, T. Defoirdt, P. Bossier and W. Vestraete. 2007. Nitrogen removal techniques in aquaculture for a sustainable production. Aquaculture 270: 1–14.
10. Dong, Z., M. Lu, W. Huang and X. Xu. 2011. Treatment of oilfield wastewater in moving bed biofilm reactors using a novel suspended ceramic biocarrier. Journal of Hazardous Materials 196: 123–130.
11. Eding, E.H., A. Kamstra, J.A.J. Verreth, E.A. Huisman and A. Klapwijk. 2006. Design and operation of nitrifying trickling filters in recirculating aquaculture. Aquacultural Engineering 34: 234–260.
12. Gentili, A.R., M.A. Cubitto, M. Ferrero and M.S. Rodriguéz. 2006. Bioremediation of crude oil polluted seawater by a hydrocarbon degrading bacterial strain immobilized on chitin and chitosan flakes. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 57: 222–-228.
13. Guo, W., H.H. Ngo, F. Dharmawan and C.G. Palmer. 2010. Roles of polyurethane foam in aerobic moving and fixed bed bioreactors. Bioresource Technology 101: 1435–1439.
14. He, S.B., G. Xue and B.Z. Wang. 2009. Factors affecting simultaneous nitrification and de-nitrification (SND) and its kinetics model in membrane bioreactor. Journal of Hazardous Materials 168: 704–710.
15. Iorhemen, O.T., R.A. Hamza and J.H. Tay. 2016. Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology for wastewater treatment and reclamation: membrane fouling. Membranes 6: 33. DOI: 10.3390/membranes6020033.
16. Jin, Y., D. Ding, C. Feng, S. Tong, T. Suemura and F. Zhang. 2012. Performance of sequencing batch biofilm reactors with different control systems in treating synthetic municipal wastewater. Bioresource Technology 104: 12–18.
17. Khan, S.J., S. Ilyas, S. Javid, C. Visvanathan and V. Jegatheesan. 2011. Performance of suspended and attached growth MBR systems in treating high strength synthetic wastewater. Bioresource Technology 102: 5331–5336.
18. Kõiv, M., K. Mahadeo, S. Brient, D. Claveau-Mallet and Y. Comeau. 2016. Treatment of fish farm sludge supernatant by aerated filter beds and steel slag filters-effect of organic loading rate. Ecological Engineering 94: 190–199.
19. Konnerup, D., N.T.D. Trang and H. Brix. 2011. Treatment of fishpond water by recirculating horizontal and vertical flow constructed wetlands in the tropics. Aquaculture 313: 57–64.
20. Lim, J.W., P.E. Lim and C.E. Seng. 2012. Enhancement of nitrogen removal in moving bed sequencing batch reactor with intermittent aeration during REACT period. Chemical Engineering Journal 197: 199–203.
21. Lindholm-Lehto, P., J. Pulkkinen, T. Kiuru, J. Koskela and J. Vielma. 2020. Water quality in recirculating aquaculture system using woodchip denitrification and slow sand filtration. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 27: 17314–17328.
22. Liu, Q., X.C. Wang, Y. Liu, H. Yuan and Y. Du. 2010. Performance of a hybrid membrane bioreactor in municipal wastewater treatment. Desalination 258: 143–147.
23. Ngo, H.H., W. Guo and X. Xing. 2008. Evaluation of a novel sponge submerged membrane bioreactor (SSMBR) for sustainable water reclamation. Bioresource Technology 99: 2429–2435.
24. Nguyen, T.T, H.H. Ngo, W. Guo, A. Johnston and A. Listowski. 2010. Effects of sponge size and type on the performance of an up-ﬂow sponge bioreactor in primary treated sewage efﬂuent treatment. Bioresource Technology 101: 1416–1420.
25. Nguyen, T.T., X.T. Bui, D.D. Nguyen, P.D. Nguyen, H.H. Ngo and W. Guo. 2016. Performance and membrane fouling of two types of laboratory-scale submerged membrane bioreactors for hospital wastewater treatment at low flux condition. Separation and Purification Technology 165: 123–129.
26. Peng, Y.Z., M. Yong and S.Y. Wang. 2007. Denitrification potential enhancement by addition of external carbon sources in a pre-denitrification process. Journal of Environmental Sciences 19: 284–289.
27. Prasertkulsak, S., C. Chiemchaisri and W. Chiemchaisri. 2018. Pharmaceutical compound removal during mixed liquor filtration in membrane bioreactor operated under long sludge age. Jurnal Teknologi 80: 45–50.
28. Sandip, M. and V. Kalyanraman. 2019. Enhanced simultaneous nitri-denitrification in aerobic moving bed biofilm reactor containing polyurethane foam-based carrier media. Water Science and Technology 79(3): 510–517.
29. Sobieszuk, P. and K.W. Szewczyk. 2006. Estimation of (C/N) ratio for microbial denitrification. Environmental Technology 27: 103–108.
30. Thanh, B.X., H. Berg, L.N.T. Nguyen and C.T. Da. 2013. Effects of hydraulic retention time on organic and nitrogen removal in a sponge-membrane bioreactor. Environmental Engineering Science 30(4): 194–199.
31. Yang, S., F. Yang, Z. Fu and R. Lei. 2009. Comparison between a moving bed membrane bioreactor and a conventional membrane bioreactor on organic carbon and nitrogen removal. Bioresource Technology 100: 2369–2374.
32. Yang, S., F. Yang, Z. Fu, T. Wang and R. Lei. 2010. Simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal by a novel sequencing batch moving bed membrane bioreactor for wastewater treatment. Journal of Hazardous Materials 175: 551–557.
33. Yin, J., P. Zhang, F. Li, G. Li and B. Hai. 2015. Simultaneous biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal with a sequencing batch reactor biofilm system. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 103: 221–226.
34. Zou, S., L. Guan, D.P. Taylor, D. Kuhn and Z. He. 2018. Nitrogen removal from water of recirculating aquaculture system by a microbial fuel cell. Aquaculture 497: 74–81.