Yield per Recruit and Spawning per Recruit of Brownbanded Bamboo Shark, Chiloscyllium punctatum in Southeast Asia

Main Article Content

Supapong Pattarapongpan
Sukchai Arnupapboon
Ahmad Ali
MATSUISHI Takashi Fritz


The brownbanded bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium punctatum) is a benthic shark species distributed in Southeast Asia. The species has been listed as “Near Threatened” by the IUCN, but only based on indirect information. In this study, yield per recruit (YPR) and spawning per recruit (SPR) analyses were conducted to determine the current stock status. Data were obtained from three major landing sites of this species: Sihanoukville, Cambodia (Sv); Songkhla, Thailand (Sk); and Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia (KK). The von Bertalanffy growth curve parameters L and K were estimated as 81.62 cm and 0.37 year-1 for Sv, 88.09 cm and 0.51 year-1 for Sk, and 86.48 cm and 0.40 year-1 for KK. The YPR and SPR analyses showed that the Fcurr, F0.1, and F30% were 0.29, 0.26, and 0.21 year-1 for Sv; 0.39, 0.23, and 0.23 year-1 for Sk; and 0.06, 0.24, and 0.24 year-1 for KK. The results indicate that the fishery for brownbanded bamboo sharks in KK is efficient and sustainable, but in Sv and Sk, harvest is nearing inefficiency, and fishing mortality cannot sustainably be increased from the current level. Some fisheries management measures are recommended for the sustainability of these stocks.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details



Ahmad, A. and A.P.K. Lim. 2012. Field Guide to Sharks of the Southeast Asian Region. SEAFDEC/MFRDMD, Terengganu, Malaysia. 210 pp.

Arai, T. and A. Azri. 2019. Diversity, occurrence and conservation of sharks in the southern South China Sea. PLoS ONE 14(3): e0213864. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0213864.

Branstetter, S. 1987. Age, growth and reproductive biology of the silky shark, Carcharhinus falciformis, and the scalloped hammerhead, Sphyrna lewini, from the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Environmental Biology of Fishes 19(3): 161-173. DOI: 10.1007/BF00005346.

Brčić, J., B. Herrmann, F.D. Carlo and A. Sala. 2015. Selective characteristics of a shark-excluding device in a Mediterranean trawl. Fisheries Research 172: 352-360. DOI: 10.1016/j.fishres.2015.07.035.

Chen, C.T., T.C. Leu, S.J. Joung and N.C.H. Lo. 1990. Age and growth of the scalloped hammerhead, Sphyrna lewini, in northeastern Taiwan waters. Pacific Science 44: 156-170.

Chen, W.K., P.C. Chen, K.M. Liu and S.B. Wang. 2007. Age and growth estimates of the whitespotted bamboo shark, Chiloscyllium plagiosum, in the northern waters of Taiwan. Zoological Studies 46: 92-102.

Chen, Y., L. Xu, X. Chen and X. Dai. 2007. A simulation study of impacts of at-sea discarding and bycatch on the estimation of biological reference points F0.1 and Fmax. Fisheries Research 85: 14-22. DOI: 10.1016/j.fishres.2006.11.033.

Davy, L.E., C.A. Simpfendorfer and M.R. Heupel. 2015. Movement patterns and habitat use of juvenile mangrove whiprays (Himantura granulata). Marine and Freshwater Research 66: 481-492. DOI: 10.1071/mf14028.

Department of Fisheries (DOF). 2015. Ministry of Agriculture Announcement. https://www4.fisheries.go.th/local/index.php/main/view_activities/84/76009. Cited 10 Nov 2020.

Dharmadi, F. and W.T. White. 2015. Species composition and aspects of the biology of Orectolobiformes from Indonesian waters. Journal of Fish Biology 86: 484-492. DOI: doi.org/10.1111/jfb.12569.

Dudgeon, C.L., M.B. Bennett and P.M. Kyne. 2016. Chiloscyllium punctatum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T41872A68616745. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016- 1.RLTS.T41872A68616745.en. Cited 19 Aug 2020.

Froese, R. 2006. Cube law, condition factor and weight-length relationships: History, meta-analysis and recommendations. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 22: 241-253. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0426.2006.00805.x.

Giménez, J., L. Cardador, T. Mazor, S. Kark, J.M. Bellido, M. Coll and J. Navarro. 2020. Marine protected areas for demersal elasmobranchs in highly exploited Mediterranean ecosystems. Marine Environmental Research 160: 105033. DOI: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2020.105033.

Goodyear, C.P. 1993. Spawning stock biomass per recruit in fisheries management: foundation and current use. In: Risk Evaluation and Biological Reference Points for Fisheries (eds. S.J. Smith, J.J. Hunt and D. Rivard), pp. 67-82. Canadian Journal Special Publication on Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Ottawa, Canada. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004.

Harahush, B., A.B.P. Fischer and S.P. Collin. 2007. Captive breeding and embryonic development of Chiloscyllium punctatum Muller & Henle, 1838 (Elasmobranchii: Hemiscyllidae). Journal of Fish Biology 71(4): 1007-1022. DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01569.x.

Harlyan, L., D. Wu, R. Kinashi, M. Kaewnern and T. Matsuishi. 2019. Validation of a feedback harvest control rule in data-limited conditions for managing multispecies fisheries. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 76: 1885-1893. DOI: 10.1139/cjfas-2018-0318.

Heupel, M., J.K. Carlson and C. Simpfendorfer. 2007. Shark nursery areas: Concepts, definition, characterization and assumptions. Marine Ecological Progress Series 337: 287-297. DOI: 10.3354/meps337287.

Heupel, M., S. Kanno, A.P.B. Martins and C.A. Simpfendofer. 2018. Advances in understanding the roles and benefits of nursery areas for elasmobranch populations. Marine and Freshwater Research 70(7): 897-907. DOI: 10.1071/MF18081.

Hoenig, J.M. 1983. Empirical use of longevity data to estimate mortality rates. Fishery Bulletin 82: 898-902.

Jutan, Y., A.S.W. Retraubun, A.S. Khouw, V.P.H. Nikijuluw and J.A. Pattikawa. 2018. Study on the population of Halmahera walking shark (Hemiscyllium halmahera) in Kao bay, north Maluku, Indonesia. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies 6(4): 36-41.

Krajangdara, T. 2014. Sharks and Rays in Thailand-Country Report. Andaman Sea Fisheries Research and Development Centre. Department of Fisheries, Phuket, Thailand. 11 pp.

Krajangdara, T. 2017. The Cartilaginous Fishes (Sharks, Rays and Chimeras) Found in Thai Waters and the Adjacent Areas. Marine Fisheries Research and Development Division. Department of Fisheries, Bangkok, Thailand. 331 pp.

Liu, K., C. Chin, C. Chen and J. Chang. 2015. Estimating finite rate of population increase for sharks based on vital parameters. PLoS ONE 10(11): e0143008. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0143008.

Mackay, D. and J. Moreau. 1990. A note on the inverse function of the von Bertalanffy growth function. Fishbyte 8: 28-31.

Mildenberger, T.K., M.H. Taylor and M. Wolff. 2017. TropFishR: An R package for fisheries analysis with length-frequency data. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 8: 1520-1527. DOI: 10.1111/2041-210X.12791.

Noranarttragoon, P., Y. Ueda, T. Hattori and T. Matsuishi. 2011. Value-per-recruit analysis of bighand thrnyhead Sebastolobus macrochir caught off the Pacific coast of northern Honshu, Japan. Fisheries Science 77: 497-502. DOI: 10.1007/s1252-011-0368-1.

Ogle, D.H., P. Wheeler and A. Dinno. 2016. FSA: Fisheries Stock Analysis. R package version hiits://github.com/droglenc/FSA. Cited 27 Nov 2020.

Pauly, D. 1980. On the interrelationships between natural mortality, growth parameters, and mean environmental temperature in 175 fish stocks. ICES Journal of Marine Science 39: 175-192. DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/39.2.175.

Pauly, D. 1983. Length-converted catch curves: A powerful tool for fisheries research in the tropics (part 1). Fishbyte 1: 9-13.

Pauly, D. 1984. Length-converted catch curves: A powerful tool for fisheries research in the tropics (Part 2). Fishbyte 2: 17-19.

Pauly, D. and J.L. Munro. 1984. Once more on the computation of growth in fish and invertebrates. Fishbyte 2: 1-21.

Pennino, M.G., F. Muñoz, D. Conesa, A. López-Quílez and J.M. Bellido. 2013. Modeling sensitive elasmobranch habitats. Journal of Sea Research 83: 209-2019. DOI: 10.1016/j.seares.2013.03.005.

Powell, D.G. 1979. Estimation of mortality and growth parameters from the length frequency of a catch. Rapports et Proces-Verbauz des Reunions 175: 167-169.

Ramli, M.F.S. 2015. False alarm: Is fishing rezoning necessary in Malaysia? IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science Ver. II 8: 2319-2372. DOI: 10.9790/2380-081125863.

Reuter, R., M.E. Conners, J. Dicosimo, S. Gaichas, O. Ormseth and T.T. Tenbrink. 2010. Managing non-target, data-poor species using catch limits: Lessons from the Alaskan groundfish fishery. Fisheries Management and Ecology 17: 323-335. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2400.2009.00726.x.

Ricker, W.E. 1975. Computation and interpretation of biological statistics of fish populations. Bulletin of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 191: 382. DOI: 10.1038/108070b0.

Scrucca, L. 2013. GA: A package for genetic algorithms in R. Journal of Statistical Software 53(4): 1-37. DOI: 10.18637/jss.v053.i04.

Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC). 2006. Report on the Study on Shark Production, Utilization, and Management in the ASEAN Region (2003-2004). Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Bangkok, Thailand. 190 pp.

Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC). 2017. Standard Operation Procedures (SOP) Sharks, Rays and Skates Data Collection in the Southeast Asian Waters. Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Bangkok, Thailand. 41 pp.

Sparre, P. and S.C. Venema. 1998. Introduction to Tropical Fish Stock Assessment Introduction to Tropical Fish Stock Assessment Part I: Manual. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. 407 pp.

Speed, C.W., I.C. Field, M.G. Meekan and C.J.A. Bradshaw. 2010. Complexities of coastal shark movements and their implications for management. Marine Ecology Progress Series 408: 275-293. DOI: 10.3354/meps08581.

Tanaka, S. 1960. Studies on the dynamics and management of fish populations. Bulletin of Tokai Regional Fisheries Research Laboratory 28: 1-200.

Taylor, M. and T. Mildenberger. 2017. Extending electronic length frequency analysis in R. Fishery Management and Ecology 24(4): 330-338. DOI: 10.1111/fme.12232.

Then, A.Y., J.M. Hoeing, N.G. Hall and D.A. Hewitt. 2015. Evaluating the predictive performance of empirical estimators of natural mortality rate using information on over 200 fish species. ICES Journal of Marine Science 72: 82-92. DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fst176.

Wanchana, W., A. Ali and S. Putsa. 2016. Recording sharks and rays statistics from Southeast Asia at species level. Fish for the People 14: 2-6.

Wanchana, W., A. Ali, V. Sulit, I. Chanrachkij, S. Arnupapboon and S. Sayan. 2020. Terminal Repost Regional Sharks, Rays and Skates Data Collection. Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Bangkok. 346 pp.

Watson, J.W., J.F. Mitchell and A.K. Shah. 1989. Trawling Efficiency Device: a new concept for selective shrimp trawling gear. Marine Fisheries Review 48(1): 1-9.

Yano, K., A. Ali, A.C. Gambang, I.A. Hamid, S.A. Razak and A. Zainal. 2005. Sharks and Rays of Malaysia and Brunei Darussalam. SEAFDEC-MFRDMD/SP/12. SEAFDEC/MFRDMD, Terengganu, Malaysia. 557 pp.

Zhou, S., A.E. Punt, Y. Lei, R. Aijun and D. Simon. 2020. Identifying spawner biomass per-recruit reference points from life-history parameters. Fish and Fisheries 21(4): 760-773. DOI: 10.1111/faf.12459.