Main Article Content
Seaweeds are rich sources of nutritional and biochemical components. In this study, five marine macroalgal species were collected from the coast of Peninsular Malaysia: Halimeda macroloba, Ulva intestinalis, Codium sp., Hydropuntia edulis and Sargassum ilicifolium. The seaweeds were explored biochemically (lipids, total carotenoids, chlorophyll a and b), their metabolites were identified using GC-MS analysis, and their antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH free radical scavenging. The highest total lipids (4.10 and 3.42 %) was found in H. macroloba and S. ilicifolium, the highest total carotenoids (162.00 and 159.18, µg·g-1) in U. intestinalis and Codium sp., and the highest chlorophyll a content (313.09±2.53 µg·g-1) in U. intestinalis. Codium sp. also contained the highest chlorophyll b (305.29±7.09 µg·g-1) content. Of the metabolites identified from the seaweeds, hexadecanoic acid, stigmast-5-en-3-ol, neophytadiene, and 2-Pentadecanone,6,10,14-trimethyl- were the most abundant. In the assay for antioxidant activity, U. intestinalis extract displayed significantly (p<0.05) higher DPPH inhibition (65.02 %) than the other species at the highest concentration (1,000 µg·mL-1) tested; however, the difference was small. At the lowest tested concentration (200 µg·mL-1), DPPH inhibition by U. intestinalis (58.42 %) extract was also the highest, and differed significantly from three of the other species. These findings highlight the potential of these seaweed species for cultivation as a sustainable source of functional food for human consumption.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
2. Ambreen, H. Khan, M. Tariq, Ruqqia, M. Sultana and J. Ara. 2012. Evaluation of biochemical component and antimicrobial activity of some seaweeds occurring at Karachi coast. Pakistan Journal of Botany 44(5): 1799–1803.
3. Anjali, K.P., B.M. Sangeetha, G. Devi, R. Raghunathan and S. Dutta. 2019. Bioprospecting of seaweeds (Ulva lactuca and Stoechospermum marginatum): The compound characterization and functional applications in medicine-a comparative study. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 200: 111622. DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2019.111622.
4. Belkacemi, L., M. Belalia, A.C. Djendara and Y. Bouhadda. 2020. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities and identification of bioactive compounds of various extracts of Caulerpa racemosa from Algerian coast. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 10(2): 87–94.
5. Blois, M.S. 1958. Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 181: 1199–1200.
6. Chen, K., J.J. Ríos, A. Pérez-Gálvez and M. Roca. 2017. Comprehensive chlorophyll composition in the main edible seaweeds. Food Chemistry 228: 625–633.
7. Chen, Z., Y. Xu, T. Liu, L. Zhang, H. Liu and H. Guan. 2016. Comparative studies on the characteristic’s fatty acid profiles of four different Chinese medicinal Sargassum seaweeds by GC-MS and chemometrics. Marine Drugs 14(4): 68. DOI: 10.3390/md14040068.
8. Collins, K.G., G.F. Fitzgerald, C. Stanton and R.P. Ross. 2016. Looking beyond the terrestrial: The potential of seaweed derived bioactives to treat non-communicable diseases. Marine Drugs 14(3): 60. DOI: 10.3390/md14030060.
9. Conforti, F., F. Menichini, C. Formisano, D. Rigano, F. Senatore, N.A. Arnold and F. Piozzi. 2009. Comparative chemical composition, free radical-scavenging and cytotoxic properties of essential oils of six Stachys species from different regions of the Mediterranean Area. Food Chemistry 116(4): 898–905.
10. Cox, S., N., Abu-Ghannam and S. Gupta 2010. An assessment of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of six species of edible Irish seaweeds. International Food Research Journal 17: 205–220.
11. El Gamal, A.A. 2010. Biological importance of marine algae. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal 18(1): 1–25
12. Evans, R.P., P. Zhu, C.C. Parrish and J.A. Brown. 2000. Lipid and amino acid metabolism during early development of marine fish. In: Seafood in Health and Nutrition–Transformation in Fisheries and Aquaculture: Global Perspectives (ed. F. Shahidi), pp. 477–493. ScienceTech Publishing Company, Newfoundland.
13. Goecke, F., V. Hernandez, M. Bittner, M. Gonzalez, J. Becerra and M. Silva. 2010. Fatty acid composition of three species of Codium (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) in Chile. Revista de Biología Marina y Oceanografía 45(2): 325–330.
14. Gordillo, F.J., J. Aguilera and C. Jimenez. 2006. The response of nutrient assimilation and biochemical composition of Arctic seaweeds to a nutrient input in summer. Journal of Experimental Botany 57(11): 2661–2671.
15. Gosch, B.J., M. Magnusson, N.A. Paul and R. de Nys. 2012. Total lipid and fatty acid composition of seaweeds for the selection of species for oil-based biofuel and bioproducts. GCB Bioenergy 4: 919–930.
16. Heriyanto, A.D. Juliadiningtyas, Y. Shioi, L. Limantara and T.H. Brotosudarmo. 2017. Analysis of pigment composition of brown seaweeds collected from Panjang Island, Central Java, Indonesia. Philippine Journal of Science 146(3): 323–330.
17. Holdt, S.L. and S. Kraan. 2011. Bioactive compounds in seaweed: Functional food applications and legislation. Journal of Applied Phycology 23(3): 543–597.
18. Hotimchenko, S.V. 2002. Fatty acid composition of algae from habitats with varying amounts of illumination. Russian Journal of Marine Biology 28(3): 218–220.
19. Indu, H. and R. Seenivasan. 2013. In vitro antioxidant activity of selected seaweeds from southeast coast of India. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 5: 474–484.
20. Ismail, G.A. 2017. Biochemical composition of some Egyptian seaweeds with potent nutritive and antioxidant properties. Food Science and Technology Campinas 37(2): 294–302.
21. Kamariah, B., H. Mohamad, J. Latip, H.S. Tan and G.M. Herng. 2017. Fatty acids compositions of Sargassum granuliferum and Dictyota dichotoma and their anti-fouling activities. Journal of Sustainability Science and Management 12(2): 8–16.
22. Kendel, M., G. Wielgosz-Collins, S. Bertrand, C. Roussakis, N. Bourgougnon and G. Bedoux. 2015. Lipid composition, fatty acids and sterols in the seaweeds Ulva armoricana, and Solieria chordalis from Brittany (France): An analysis from nutritional, chemotaxonomic and antiproliferative activity perspectives. Marine Drugs 13: 5606–5628.
23. Khairy, H.M. and M.A. El-Sheikh. 2015. Antioxidant activity and mineral composition of three Mediterranean common seaweeds from Abu-Qir Bay, Egypt. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 22(5): 623–630.
24. Khotimchenko, S.V., V.E. Vaskovsky and T.V. Titlyanova. 2002. Fatty acids of marine algae from the Pacific coast of north California. Botanica Marina 45(1): 17–22. DOI: 10.1515/BOT.2002.003.
25. Kumar, J.I.N., R.N. Kumar, A. Bora, M. Kaur Amb and S. Chakraborthy. 2009. An evaluation of the pigment composition of eighteen marine macroalgae collected from Okha Coast, Gulf of Kutch, India. Our Nature 7: 48–55.
26. Kumari, P., M. Kumar, V. Gupta, C.R.K. Reddy and B. Jha. 2010. Tropical marine macroalgae as potential sources of nutritionally important PUFAs. Food Chemistry 120(3): 749–757.
27. Leelavathi, M. and M. Prasad. 2014. Evaluation of antioxidant properties of marine seaweed samples by DPPH method. International Journal of Pure & Applied Bioscience 2(6): 132–137.
28. Lichtenthaler, H.K. and C. Buschmann. 2001. Chlorophylls and carotenoids–Measurement and characterization by UV-VIS. In: Current Protocols in Food Analyticial Chemistry (CPFA), (Supplement 1) (ed. H.K. Lichtenthaler), pp. F4.3.1–F4.3.8. John Wiley & Sons, New York
29. Manivannan, K., G. Thirumaran, G.D. Karthikai, P. Anantharaman and T. Balasubramanian. 2009. Proximate composition of different group of seaweed from Vedalai coastal waters (Gulf of Mannar): Southest coast of India. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 4(2): 72–77.
30. Matanjun, P., S. Mohamed, N.M. Mustapha and K. Muhammad. 2009. Nutrient content of tropical edible seaweeds, Eucheuma cottonii, Caulerpa lentillifera and Sargassum polycystum. Journal of Applied Phycology 21(1): 75–80.
31. Montgomery, W. and S. Gerking, 1980. Marine macroalgae as foods for fishes: an evaluation of potential food quality. Environmental Biology of Fishes 5: 143–153.
32. Mujeeb, F., P. Bajpai and N. Pathak. 2014. Phytochemical Evaluation, Antimicrobial Activity, and Determination of Bioactive Components from Leaves of Aegle marmelos. BioMed Research International 2014: 497606. DOI: 10.1155/2014/497606.
33. Nazarudin, M.F., A. Isha, S.N. Mastuki, N.M. Ain, N.F. Mohd Ikhsan, A.Z. Abidin and M. Aliyu-Paiko. 2020. Chemical composition and evaluation of the α-Glucosidase inhibitory and cytotoxic properties of marine algae Ulva intestinalis, Halimeda macroloba, and Sargassum ilicifolium. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2020: 2753945. DOI: 10.1155/2020/2753945.
34. Nomura, T., M. Kikuchi, A. Kubodera and Y. Kawakami. 1997. Proton-donative antioxidant activity of fucoxanthin with l,ldiphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Biochemistry and Molecular Biology International 42(2): 361–370.
35. Özçimen, D. and B. İnan. 2015. An overview of bioethanol production from algae. In: Biofuels-Status and Perspective (ed. K. Biernat), pp. 141–162. InTech, Rijeka.
36. Pangestuti, R. and S.K. Kim. 2011. Biological activities and health benefit effects of natural pigments derived from marine algae. Journal of Functional Foods 3(4): 255–266.
37. Patra, J.K., G. Das and K.H. Baek. 2015. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of an Essential Oil Extracted from an Edible Seaweed, Laminaria japonica L. Molecules 20(7): 12093–12113.
38. Plaza, M., S. Santoyo, L. Jaime, G. García-Blairsy Reina, M. Herrero, F.J. Senoráns and E. Ibánez. 2010. Screening for bioactive compounds from algae. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 51(2): 450–455.
39. Poojary, M.M., F.J. Barba, B. Aliakbarian, F. Donsi, G. Pataro, D.A. Dias and P. Juliano. 2016. Innovative alternative technologies to extract carotenoids from microalgae and seaweeds. Marine Drugs 14: 214. DOI: 10.3390/md14110214.
40. Rajauria, G., A.K. Jaiswal, N. Abu-Ghannam and S. Gupta. 2013. Antimicrobial, antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacity of brown seaweed Himanthalia elongata from western coast of Ireland. Journal of Food Biochemistry 37(3): 322–335.
41. Rodolfi, L., G. Chini Zittelli, N. Bassi, G. Padovani, N. Biondi, G. Bonini and M.R. Tredici. 2009. Microalgae for oil: strain selection, induction of lipid synthesis and outdoor mass cultivation in a low-cost photobioreactor. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 102(1): 100–112.
42. Rustan, A.C. and C.A. Drevon. 2005. Fatty acids: Structures and properties. In: Encyclopedia of life sciences, pp. 1–7. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, West Sussex, UK.
43. Saishri, R., N. Ravichandran, V. Vadivel and P. Brindha. 2016. Pharmacognostic Studies on leaf of Jatropha Gossypifolia L. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 7(1): 163–173.
44. Schmid, M., F. Guihéneuf and D.B. Stengel. 2014. Fatty acid contents and profiles of 16 macroalgae collected from the Irish Coast at two seasons. Journal of Applied Phycology 26(1): 451–463.
45. Schmid, M., L.G.K. Kraft, L. van der Loos, G.T. Kraft, P. Virtue, P.D. Nichols and C.L. Hurd. 2018. Southern Australian seaweeds: a promising resource for omega-3 fatty acids. Food Chemistry 265: 70–77.
46. Smit, A.J. 2004. Medicinal and pharmaceutical uses of seaweed natural products: A review. Journal of Applied Phycology 16(4): 245–262.
47. Venkataraman, B., L.A. Samuel, M. Pardha Saradhi, B. Narashimharao, A. Naga Vamsi Krishna, M. Sudhakar and T.M. Radhakrishnan. 2012. Antibacterial, antioxidant activity and GC-MS analysis of Eupatorium odoratum. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 5(2): 99–106.
48. Yokoya, N.S., O. Necchi Jr, A.P. Martins, S.F. Gonzalez and E.M. Plastino. 2007. Growth responses and photosynthetic characteristics of wild and phycoerythrin-deficient strains of Hypnea musciformis (Rhodophyta). Journal of Applied Phycology 19(3): 197–205.
49. Young, A.J. and G.L. Lowe. 2018. Carotenoids-antioxidant properties. Antioxidants 7(2): 28–31.