Embryonic Development, Hatchability and Survival of Early Larval Stage of Mud Spiny Lobster Panulirus polyphagus (Herbst, 1793) Under Hatchery Conditions

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Vutthichai Oniam
Wasana Arkronrat
Anurak Sookdara
Piyawat Promraksa


The embryonic development of mud spiny lobsters Panulirus polyphagus was observed, and fecundity, hatching rate and survival rate of early larvae were estimated (n = 18 females). Embryonic development, which occurs on the pleopods of ovigerous lobsters, took 10.5±3.9 days from stage I (bright orange) to stage II-III (orange-dark orange), 7.4±3.4 days from stage III to stage IV-V (orange/brown-dark brown), and then 5.7±0.6 days from dark brown eggs to hatching (24.7±3.8 days from stage I to hatching). Observed water quality parameters included mean salinity 32.1±1.1 ‰, DO 4.0±0.4 mg·L-1, water temperature 26.5±0.3 °C, pH 8.2±0.1, total ammonia 0.14±0.17 mg-N·L-1, nitrite 0.12±0.14 mg-N·L-1 and total alkalinity 144.2±6.8 mg·L-1 as CaCO3. The mean fecundity (F) was 780,770±340,104 eggs and the mean hatching rate (HR) was 21.9±15.8 %; adult females had a mean carapace length (CL) of 92.3±8.1 mm and body weight (BW) of 665.6±147.1 g. Correlation analysis showed that there were significant, positive correlations between F and CL (r2 = 0.57, p<0.01) and between F and BW (r2 = 0.69, p<0.01), while there was no correlation between HR and CL or HR and BW. In addition, the survival rates of phyllosomal larvae in starvation and live feed tests were significantly different (p<0.05) throughout the 7-day experiment. No larvae survived in the starvation treatment to day 4, and by day 7, all of the larvae in the rotifer treatment had died, whereas survival for the Artemia treatment was 26.6±7.6 % at the end of the trial.


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