Properties of Proteinaceous Antimicrobial Compound Produced by Bacillus thuringiensis strain SS01 Isolated from Mangrove Forest in Thailand

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Nongnapat Kamaneewan
Pramvadee Tepwong
Juta Mookdasanit
Pongtep Wilaipun

Abstract

The mangrove forest is a dynamic ecosystem, with a diverse ecology containing plants, animals and microorganisms. This ecosystem represents an interesting natural source of novel and useful biological substances. The aims of this study were to determine the optimum conditions for antimicrobial agent production of target bacterial strain SS01 isolated from a mangrove ecosystem as well as some significant factors affecting its antimicrobial activity. According to biochemical test results and 16S rDNA gene sequence, strain SS01, which was isolated from soil from a mangrove forest in central Thailand, was identified as Bacillus thuringiensis. The optimum conditions for antimicrobial production of B. thuringiensis strain SS01 was observed when culturing in M17 broth without NaCl at 35 °C. The highest antimicrobial activity for inhibiting Micrococcus luteus IFO 12708 (800 AU·mL-1) was found during culture for 36-48 h, with pH 6.77-7.06. Moreover, the secondary metabolite in CFNS exhibited a proteinaceous nature, which is the most important characteristic of a bacteriocin. The broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound in the cell-free neutralized supernatant (CFNS) produced from B. thuringiensis strain SS01 was heat tolerant, stable from pH 2-8, and displayed bacteriostatic mode of action against M. luteus IFO 12708. Its antimicrobial activity was partially reduced under 3-11% (w/v) NaCl. Consequently, the antimicrobial compound possessing unique and interesting properties produced by B. thuringiensis strain SS01 shows high potential for applications in food products, animal feed and related industries.

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