Glycosylation index in type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy

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Pimpa Ratchawan
Jindarat Trakulthong
Wisut Kangwantrakul
Limthong Promdee


Background and objective : Glycosylation index is composed of glycosylation gap (GG), hemoglobin glycation index (HGI), fructosamine glycation index (FGI).  The indeces are index calculated based on blood glucose (BG), fructosamine (F), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C).  The purpose of this study was to compare these indices in type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM) with various  stages of nephropathy.

Methods: HbA1C, BG and F were obtained from 104 T2DM patients (37 males, 67 females) at a single clinical visit at Buddhachinnaratana Hospital, Pitsanulok.  The stages of nephropathy was divided into 3 groups according to albuminuria level; no nephropathy (n = 57), microalbuminuria (n = 29), and advanced nephropathy (n = 18).

Results : Mean±SD HbA1C = 7.9±1.7%, F = 279±69 mmol/L, BG = 7.0±1.9 mmol/L, GG = 0.0±2.37, HGI = -0.23±1.47, and FGI = -0.21±63 were found in all subjects.  Mean GG (0.55±0.8), HGI (0.70±1.5), and HbA1C (9.0±1.8%) in patients with advanced nephropathy was significantly different from those with no nephropathy and microalbuminuria (P < 0.05),

Conclusions : Increasing levels of HbA1C indicate with worsening nephropathy in T2DM.

Key words: Glycosylation index; type 2 diabetes mellitus; Microalbuminuria; Nephropathy


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Ratchawan P, Trakulthong J, Kangwantrakul W, Promdee L. Glycosylation index in type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy. SRIMEDJ [Internet]. 2013 Oct. 31 [cited 2022 May 18];25(4):280-6. Available from:
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