Iron Deficiency Anemia and Energy and Nutrients Intake of Vegetarian Adolescents in Ratchatani Asoke Community, Ubon Ratchathani Province

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Suwanna Maenpuen
Benja Muktabhant
Yupa Thavornpitak

Abstract

Background and Objective : Iron deficiency anemia  is  an  important  public health problem especially among children and adolescents who are  still  growing  and  developing. This  cross-sectional  study  aimed  to  determine  the prevalence  of  iron  deficiency  anemia, energy and nutrients intake  among vegetarian adolescents.

Methods : Ninety four vegetarian adolescents (51 males, 43 females) living in the Ratchatani Asoke community, Ubon Ratchathani Province  aged between 10 to 19 years participated in this study. All adolescents were screened for thalassemia by OF and DCIP. Anemia was defined as Hb values lower than the WHO standard. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was defined as serum ferritin (SF) <15µg/l concurrent with anemia. Iron depletion (ID) was defined as SF lower than 15µg/l with non anemia. Nutritional intake was calculated from 7 day dietary food records of 86 adolescents. Energy and nutrients’ adolescents were analysed by comparing with Thai recommended dietary allowance (RDA). The data were collected from  February to April 2009.

Results : The median duration of consuming vegetarian diet of the respondents was 3 years (Q1- Q3=2-5). Most of then (89.5%) skipped lunch. The prevalence of anemia among vegetarian adolescents was high at 42.6%, with a similar proportion found for males (43.1%) and females (41.9%). The prevalence of IDA, was 24.5%, with higher proportion among females (30.2%) in comparison to males (19.6%). The prevalence of ID was 18.1%, with 15.7% for males and 20.9% for females. The median amount of energy and protein intake were 50.9% (Q1-Q3= 40.3-61.2) and 49.7% (Q1-Q3= 39.1-59.2) of RDA, respectively. The median amount of iron intake was only 34.4% (Q1-Q3=23.9-48.7) of   RDA and the median vitamin C intake was 72.5% (Q1-Q3 = 50.5-108.8) of RDA. Energy intakes expressed as a percentage of total energy of carbohydrates was found to be 67.4%, 11.1% of protein and 21.5% of fat.

Conclusion : The prevalence of IDA and ID among the vegetarian adolescents was high. Special attention in this respect must be given among female adolescents. The ways and means must be found to correct the situation, in advocating diets with high iron content and also iron supplementation might be considered.

Keyword : Iron Deficiency Anemia, Iron Depletion, Vegetarian, Adolescents

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1.
Maenpuen S, Muktabhant B, Thavornpitak Y. Iron Deficiency Anemia and Energy and Nutrients Intake of Vegetarian Adolescents in Ratchatani Asoke Community, Ubon Ratchathani Province. SRIMEDJ [Internet]. 2013 Nov. 1 [cited 2022 Jun. 29];24(4):314-20. Available from: https://li01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/SRIMEDJ/article/view/13040
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