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Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides metabolite/biochemical information about tissues non-invasively in vivo. MRS has been used clinically in the investigation of neurological and neurosurgical disorders. In vivo proton spectroscopy allows the detection of certain metabolites in brain tissue, such as N-acetyl aspartate, creatine, choline, myoinositol, amino acids and lipids. N-acetyl aspartate is a neuronal marker. Choline indicates the normal energy metabolism of the brain. Myoinositol is considered a glial marker, while, amino acids and lipids are encountered in brain abscesses and necrotic processes. Understanding roles of these metabolites will help in defining the nature and extent of brain diseases.