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Background: The number of people diagnosed with diabetes trends to dramatically increase over time. Diabetes is recognized as a serious global health problem often resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality. Diabetes and its complications can be prevented or delayed through lifestyle modification. Early diagnosis and identifying high risk people are beneficial in diabetes control.
Objective: To study the prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in volunteers residing in rural and urban area of Khon Kaen Province and to follow-up diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance volunteers one year after the previous survey.
Methods: The volunteers were interviewed and checked for general health status. After fasting overnight, the fasting plasma glucose and glucose tolerance test were conducted by taking 75 grams of glucose orally. Blood samples were analyzed for plasma glucose.
Study design: Descriptive study
Setting: Taang Kwang village, Wang Noi district; Noon Chai village, Khon Kaen township and Srinagarind hospital.
Samples: One hundred and three volunteers in Taang Kwang, Wang-Noi district, Khon Kaen and 211 volunteers in Noon Chai village, Khon Kaen township, Khon Kaen
Results: In comparison of the prevalence of diabetes diagnosed by fasting plasma glucose, the urban and rural volunteers had 17.2% and 10% of diabetes respectively. The prevalence of diabetes was higher to 36% for urban and 19% for rural volunteers when diagnosed by oral glucose tolerance test. In the 1 year follow-up survey of rural volunteers showed that volunteers with diabetes changed their behaviour to increase exercise and diet control more than normal volunteers.
Conclusion: The prevalence of diabetes was higher in urban volunteer group than in rural volunteer group. The prevalence was 2 times higher when diagnosed by glucose tolerance test both in urban and rural volunteers. In rural volunteer group, the prevalence of diabetes increased with the increasing age range while the prevalence of urban volunteer group was related to abdominal fat. The volunteers with high plasma glucose changed their lifestyle in favour of preventing long term complication and increased well-being.
Keywords: diabetes of diabetes; urban and rural volunteer; lifestyle