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Background: Derris scandens (Leguminosae) is used as traditional remedies in Thailand for arthritis. Phytochemicals obtained from the stems are mainly isoflavones such as genistein and their derivatives. Many anticancer activities of isoflavone have been reported, including antimigration effect.
Objectives: To assess antimigration activity of D. scandens extract on cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cell lines compared to other human cancer cell lines and standard antimitotic drug (e.g., paclitaxel).
Methods: Non-cytotoxic concentrations of D. scandens ethanol extract, paclitaxel and vehicle were determined by MTT assay. For antimigration assay, co-cultured technique using CCA cell lines (KKU-100, KKU-M139 and KKU-M213), hepatoma cell line (HepG2) and breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) was employed. The cells (2.5x104 cells) were pre-treated with non-cytotoxic concentrations of tested drug or herbal extract for 30 min before adding to insert (upper chamber), then further incubated for 18 h at 37oC in 5% CO2 incubator. Non-migrating cells were removed using cotton swab, the number of cells migrated to well (lower chamber) were counted under a microscope and percent inhibition was calculated.
Results: From MTT assay, in comparison to vehicle (0.25-1% DMSO), the non-cytotoxic concentrations were up to 800 mg/ml 0.5% DMSO and 10-9 M for D. scandens and paclitaxel, repectively. Antimigration activity of D. scandens was clearly demonstrated with nearly all of the human cancer cell lines, except KKU-100 which is derived from the poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma tissue. The migratory inhibition effect of paclitaxel was observed in all cell lines.
Conclusions: The ethanol extract of D. scandens shows antimigration in most many cancer cell lines. For CCA cell lines, the extract showed potent inhibitory effect especially with squamous cell carcinoma (KKU-M139) and adenosquamous carcinoma (KKU-M213). Therefore, it is interesting that the extract may have a potential as antimetastasis on CCA cells, at least in part, mediated through antimigration activity.
Key words: Derris scandens, Cholangiocarcinoma, Antimigration, Cytotoxicity
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