Morphometric Analysis of External Carotid Artery, Maxillary Artery and Middle Meningeal Artery: Length and Angle measurement for Accurate Catheterization

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Artit Leeprakhon
Sitthichai lamsaard
Kowit Chaisiwamongkol
Pipatphong Kanla
Waranon Munkhong
Porntip Boonruangsri


Background and Objective: The external carotid, maxillary and middle meningeal arteries (ECA, MA and MMA) are commonly damaged during catheterization angiography in maxillary osteotomy because the morphometric knowledge of such arteries is limited. This study aim to analyze the MA’s course and measure length and angle of ECA, MA and MMA. Additionally, relationship between MMA and auriculotemporal nerve (ATN) was investigated.

Method: Thirty five faces of Thai cadavers (~ 69.6 years) were examined. The branches of MA and ECA were dissected to 1) record the course of the 1st and 2nd parts of the MA against lateral pterygoid muscle, 2) measure the length (L) of ECA (L1), MA (L2) and MMA (L3), 3) measure angle (A) from ECA to MA (A1), MA to MMA (A2), and 4) evaluate the relationship between MMA and ATN, respectively.

Results: The 1st and 2nd parts of the MA showed a major course of lateral type (75.7%). The mean lengths of L1, L2 and L3 were 56.4, 11.6 and 18.8 mm, respectively. The mean angles of the A1a, A1b and A2 were 100o, 130 o, and 120 o, respectively. The most type of relationship between MMA and ATN was type 3 (54%). There was no difference in the course of MA between genders. However the length and angle of male were longer than that of female, except the L3 and A1b.

Conclusion: This study provides the morphometric information of ECA, MA and MMA in embalmed cadavers. These data may be useful for the surgeon before performing catheterization.


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