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Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is a common public health problem in worldwide. In normal conditions, the urinary tract is a sterile environment. The mucosa of the urinary tract acts as a natural protective barrier that prevents microbial adhesion and invasion into the body. In indwelling catheterized patient, indwelling catheter affects the urinary mucosa to be injured, inflamed, damaged, and then enhancing bacterial adhesion. When the contaminated Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) entry to the body through the catheter. The UPEC is able to adhere and grow on the surface of the catheter and multiplies itself then invades into other tissue layers of the body results in the significantly increases the incident of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the studying about histological alteration of the urinary bladder after catheterization and the mechanism of UPEC infection are able to be a basic knowledge and benefit for anyone interested to study for improving the effective strategy in prevention and treatment of CAUTI.
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