Health Risk Level of Health Workers Exposed to Ionizing Radiation in Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory

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Piyapong Sirinapakul
Naesinee Chaiear
Pattapong Makarawate
Chariya Bamrungsiri
Chamnian Pattanajak
Nikom Namkoch


Background and Objectives: Ionizing radiation (IR) from fluoroscopy in cardiac catheterization laboratory (cath lab) has  health effect on health workers. The health workers in cath lab have  higher risk for cataracts than other health works 2-4 times.  The as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principle is applied among cath lab workers exposed to IR from fluoroscopy; however, an evaluation of the IR risk is needed. The purpose of the current study was to determine the risk of IR from fluoroscopy among cath lab workers.

Methods:  A descriptive study was conducted. A walk-through survey was performed during operation of the catheterization laboratory. Sixteen workers participated in the study; they were observed by the researcher using a Semi-Quantitative 3x3 Matrix (SQM).  The workers were asked to perform a Radio-Protection Questionnaire (RPQ). All data from the SQM, RPQ, and personal radiation dosimeter were analyzed to determine the health risk level.

Results: The health risk level of workers assessed vis-à-vis severity and chances of exposure to IR was high. The SQM revealed that the chances of exposure of the 16 workers was moderate. Chance of exposure comprised frequency of exposure, use of lead glasses, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), and occupational safety training. The RPQ to which 14 of the 16 workers responded revealed that 3 workers wore lead glasses, and 6 OSL, and 1 was aware of the equivalent radiation dose of the eye's lens.

Conclusion: Cath lab workers had a high health risk despite moderate exposure. They thus had a high severity of IR. The chance of exposure was moderate because the workers did not wear lead glasses and/or OSL during the procedure. Additionally, the knowledge and practice of radiation safety were lacking.


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Sirinapakul P, Chaiear N, Makarawate P, Bamrungsiri C, Pattanajak C, Namkoch N. Health Risk Level of Health Workers Exposed to Ionizing Radiation in Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory. SRIMEDJ [Internet]. 2021 Aug. 20 [cited 2023 Jan. 27];36(4):426-30. Available from:
Original Articles


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