TK's 5 Factors Model for Explaining the Incidence of Suicide and Suicide Attempt


  • Thoranin Kongsuk Khon Kaen Rajanagarindra Psychiatric Hospital, Khon Kaen Province


suicide, suicide attempt, 5 factors, TK's model


This article aims to present TK’s 5 Factors model of suicide, which is a hypothesis explaining suicidal behavior and factors leading to suicide and suicide attempts among Thai people. TK’s 5 Factors model of suicide was developed through a thorough review of the literature with strong and reliable evidence. The model was also based on the results of data analysis from several consecutive years of self-harm surveillance reports (506S database), as well as the results of data analysis from suicide and suicide attempts incidence investigation reports submitted from various provinces throughout the country.

The model assumes that suicide or attempted suicide, which is not an act of devotion to one’s faith, belief, religion, or sacrifice for one’s nation, group, or race, occurs under the following five conditions: 1) having risk factors that make the person physically or mentally weak, 2) having precipitating factors that lead to suicidal thoughts and actions, 3) experiencing failure of surveillance, where warning signs of suicide are overlooked and responded to adequately and promptly, 4) experiencing failure of barriers, where access to lethal means, toxic substances, or places used for suicide is not effectively restricted or blocked, and 5) having weak protective factors. If all five conditions are not met, the incident of suicide or suicidal attempt is less likely to occur.

The principles outlined in TK’s 5 Factors model of suicide serve as a guide for suicide investigation teams to gather information from various sources. These principles can be used to form hypotheses, which help prove the causes and factors of suicide and attempted suicide cases under investigation. Additionally, the TK’s 5 Factors model is useful in planning care and treatment for suicide survivors, as well as determining measures to prevent suicide at the provincial or national level.


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How to Cite

Kongsuk T. TK’s 5 Factors Model for Explaining the Incidence of Suicide and Suicide Attempt. SRIMEDJ [Internet]. 2024 Apr. 24 [cited 2024 Jul. 14];39(2):209-18. Available from:



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