Oncologic Emergencies in Srinagarind Hospital: A10 Years Period of Hospital Records

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Kosin Wirasorn
Wiyada Punjaruk
Pathompong Kumpamool
Vichai Sinchaiyaphum
Benchawan Khamnongkhu

Abstract

Background and Objective:Oncologic emergency occurring in cancer patients leads to a high chance of morbidity and/or mortality, especially, when the diagnosis and specific treatment are delayed. This study aims to study the clinical presentations and causes of oncologic emergency in Srinagarind hospital such as superior vena cava (SVC) obstruction, malignant spinal cord compression (MSCC) and hypercalcemia of malignancy (HCM).

Methods:All new cancer patients with oncologic emergency diagnosed SVC obstruction, MSCC and HCM, who are registered in Srinagarind hospital between January 1st, 2001 and December 31st, 2010, were enrolled in this study.

Results:This study revealed that the number of cancer patients were 46,264 cases. Cancer patients with SVC obstruction were accounted for 82 (0.18%), additionally, such patients with MSCC and HCM were 71 (0.15%) and 81 (0.18%), respectively. The highest incidence of oncologic emergency was presented at the age of 41-60 years. The results showed that the primary lung cancer frequently leaded to oncologic emergency such as SVC obstruction, MSCC and HCM. Malignancy patients with SVC obstruction frequently presented with facial swelling (76.83%) and dyspnea (59.76%). Additionally, motor muscle weakness was the most common clinical presentation of MSCC (88.73%). Basically, cancer patients with HCM prominently showed lethargy (61.73%).

Conclusion : The oncologic emergency is a rare condition. However, this condition can cause devastating morbidity and mortality in malignancy patients. Therefore, this condition should be primarily concerned to provide early diagnosis. Additionally, patients with malignancy should be advised to carefully aware the occurrence of oncologic emergency.

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