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Oncological emergencies are conditions, which are leading to high morbidity and mortality in malignant patients, if the diagnosis and treatment are delayed. Therefore, medical concern and early diagnosis of this condition is vitally important including early appropriate treatment. This article reviews the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of common oncological emergencies malignant patients. The common oncological emergencies are classified into 3 groups; 1) tumor mass affecting on structures or causing obstruction such as superior vena cava obstruction, pericardial tamponade, spinal cord compression, increased intracranial pressure, urinary obstruction, hemoptysis and airway obstruction 2) Abnormal metabolism and hormone such as hypercalcemia and syndrome of inappropriate secretion of the antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) and 3) secondary complications arising from treatment effects such as tumor lysis syndrome, anaphylactic reactions relating to chemotherapeutic agents and hemorrhagic cystitis.
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