Effects of Pretreatment and Drying Methods on the Quality of Sorghum Flour and Its Application in Pancake Production

Main Article Content

Rungtip Wongtom


The objective of this research was to investigate pretreatment and drying methods and their effects on sorghum flour qualities and application in pancake. The experiment was laid out using a 3x2 factorial completely randomized design with 3 preparation methods (sorghum soaking in water for 15 minutes, steaming for 15 minutes and boiling for 4 minutes) and 2 drying methods (tray drying and freeze drying). The results show that the preparation methods of sorghum affected sorghum flour on moisture, water activity, peak viscosity, breakdown, peak time, pasting temperature and color value (L*, a*, b*). The preparation methods affected on structure of sorghum flour were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) at 3000X magnification. The morphology of sorghum flour pretreated with moisture heat was bigger than that of the control. Pancakes made from all pretreated sorghum flours followed by freeze drying demonstrated a higher sensory acceptance score in terms of texture than that of the others (p<0.05).


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Wongtom, R. (2019). Effects of Pretreatment and Drying Methods on the Quality of Sorghum Flour and Its Application in Pancake Production. Journal of Food Technology, Siam University, 14(1), 37–47. Retrieved from https://li01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/JFTSU/article/view/146644
บทความวิจัย (Research Articles)


[1] Sharanagata, V.S., Suhaga, R., Ananda, P., Deswala, G., Kumara, R., Chaudharya, A., Singhb, L., Kushwaha, O.S., Manic, S., Kumara, Y. and Nema, P.K. (2019). Physico-functional, thermo-pasting and anti-oxidant properties of microwave roasted sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. Journal of Cereal Science. 85: 111-119.
[2] Marston, K., Khouryieh, H. and Aramouni, F. (2016). Effect of heat treatment of sorghum flour on the functional properties of gluten-free bread and cake. Journal of LWT - Food Science and Technology. 65: 637-644.
[3] Abdualrahman, M.A.Y., Ma, H., Yagoub, A.E.A., Zhou, C., Ali, A.O. and Yang, W. (2019). Nutritional value, protein quality and antioxidant activity of Sudanese sorghum-based kissra bread fortified with bambara groundnut (Voandzeia subterranea) seed flour. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences. 18: 32-40.
[4] Jafari, M., Koocheki, A. and Milani, E. (2017). Effect of extrusion cooking of sorghum flour on rheology, morphology and heating rate of sorghum-wheat composite dough. Journal of Cereal Science. 77: 49-57.
[5] Guindoa, D., Temea, N., Vaksmann, M., Doumbiaa, M., Vilmusb, I., Guittonb, B., Sissokoa, A., Mestresd, C., Davrieuxde, F., Fliedeld, G., Kouressya, M., Courtoisb, B. and Ramib, J.F. (2019). Quantitative trait loci for sorghum grain morphology and quality traits: Toward breeding for a traditional food preparation of West-Africa. Journal of Cereal Science. 85: 256-272.
[6] Anunciacão, P.C., Cardoso, L.D.M., Gomes, J.V.P., Lucia, C.M.D., Carvalho, C.W.P., Galdeano, M.C. and Pinheiro-Sant’Ana, H.M. (2017). Comparing sorghum and wheat whole grain breakfast cereals: Sensorial acceptance and bioactive compound content. Journal of Food Chemistry. 221: 984-989.
[7] Girard, A.L. and Awika, J.M. (2018). Sorghum polyphenols and other bioactive components as functional and health promoting food ingredients. Journal of Cereal Science. 84: 112-124.
[8] Rao, B.D., Anis, M., Kalpana, K., Sunooj, K.V., Patil, J.V. and Ganesh, T. (2016). Influence of milling methods and particle size on hydration properties of sorghum of LWT - Food Science and Technology. 67: flour and quality of sorghum biscuits. Journal 8-13.
[9] Kongdejsakda, C. (2017). Have you ever had bloating - diarrhea? Warning signs of starch allergies in sweets. Retrieved 29 Jan, 19 from https://www.dailynews. co.th/article/557775.
[10] Monthea, O.C., Grosmaireb, L., Nguimboua, L.M., Dahdouhb, L., Riccib, J., Tranc, T. and Ndjouenkeua, R. (2019). Rheological and textural properties of gluten-free doughs and breads based on fermented cassava, sweet potato and sorghum mixed flours. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 101: 575-582.
[11] Khampakool, A., Soisungwan, S. and Park, S.H. (2019). Potential application of infrared assisted freeze drying (IRAFD) for banana snacks: Drying kinetics, energy consumption, and texture. Journal of. LWT - Food Science and Technology. 99: 355-363.
[12] Cheng, A.W., Xie, H.X., Qi, Y., Liu, C., Guo, X., Sun, J.Y. and Liu. L.N. (2017). Effects of storage time and temperature on polyphenolic content and qualitative characteristics of freeze-dried and spray-dried bayberry powder. LWT-Food Science and Technology. Journal of LWT-Food Science and Technology. 78: 235-240.
[13] Mahn, A., Martin, C., Reyes, A., and Saavedra, I. (2016). Evolution of sulfora-phane content in sulforaphane-enriched broccoli during tray drying. Journal of Food Engineering. 186: 27-33.
[14] Hemparatsuwan, P. (2005). Effects of variety and processing on the quality of sorghum flour and starch. master’s thesis, Food Technology, Chulalongkorn University.
[15] Ratithammatorn, T. (2016). Effects of Heating and Cooling on Structural Change and Digestion of Starch. Burapha Science Journal. 21(2): 246-259.
[16] Neill, G., Al-Muhtaseb, A.H., Magee, T.R.A. (2012). Optimisation of time/temperature treatment, for heat treated soft wheat flour. Journal of Food Engineering. 113: 422-426.
[17] Sun, Q., Han, Z., Wang, L. and Xiong, L. (2014). Physicochemical differrences bet-ween sorghum starch and sorghum flour modified by heat-moisture treatment. Journal of Food Chemistry. 145: 756-764.
[18] Zhanga, N., Gaoa, Y., Tongb, L., and Li, Z. (2018). Superheated steam processing improved the qualities of oats flour and noodles. Journal of Cereal Science. 83: 96-100.
[19] SHIH, F.F., TRUONG, V.D. and DAIGLE, K.W. (2006). Physicochemical Properties of Gluten-free Pancakes from Rice abd Sweet Potato Flours. Journal of Food Quality. 29: 97-107.
[20] Onyango, C., Mutungi, C., Unbehend, G. and Lindhauer, M.G. (2011). Modification of gluten-free sorghum batter and bread using maize, potato, cassava or rice starch. Journal of LWT - Food Science and Technology. 44: 681-686.
[21] Ferreira, S.M.R., Mello, A.P.D., Anjos, M.D.C.R.D., Krüger, C.C.H., Azoubel, P.M.A. and Alves, M.A.D.O. (2016). Utilization of sorghum, rice, corn flours with potato starch for the preparation of gluten-free pasta. Journal of Food Chemistry. 191: 147-151.
[22] Beitane, I., Krumina-Zemture, G. and Murniece, I. (2014). Sensory, Colour and Structure Properties of Pancake Prepared with Pea and Buckwheat Flours. Journal of Foodbalt. 9: 234-238.
[23] Si Rot, K., and Piyachomkwan, K. (2003). Starch Technology. (3rd ed.). Bangkok: Kasetsart University Press.
[24] Hoseney, R.C., and Faubion, J.M., (1992). Physical properties of cereal grains. In D.B.Sauer. Storage of Cereal Grains and Their Products. Minnesota: American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc.
[25] Rattanapanone, N. (2018). Food Chemistry. (3rd ed.). Bangkok: Odian Store.
[26] Yousif, A., Nhepera, D. and Johnson, S. (2012). Influence of sorghum flour addition on flat bread in vitro starch digestibility, antioxidant capacity and consumer acceptability. Journal of Food Chemistry. 134: 880-887.