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This study aims to investigate the appropriate carbon sources and C/N ratio required for biofloc formation. This study involves two experiments. The first experiment compares the use of three different carbon sources i.e. rice flour, rice bran and molasses for biofloc formation. The results showed that total ammonia of the treatment groups that added rice flour, rice bran, and molasses was statistically lower than that of the control group (p<0.05). The treatment group that added rice bran could reduce total ammonia most effectively. Besides, total suspended solids in the water of the treatment group with added rice bran were statistically higher than those of the treatment groups with added rice flour and molasses and those of the control group (p<0.05). Therefore, in the second experiment, rice bran was chosen as a potential carbon source for biofloc formation while urea was selected as a source of nitrogen to find out a suitable carbon-nitrogen (C/N) ratio for biofloc formation. The effect of four different initial C/N ratios (10:1, 15:1, 20:1 and no carbon sources) were evaluated. The results indicated that a C/N ratio of 20:1 could reduce total ammonia most effectively (91.62%) and total suspended solids in water were statistically higher (p<0.05) than using the other ratios. In conclusion, the most suitable carbon source was rice bran and the appropriate C/N ratio for biofloc formation was 20:1 as they could reduce total ammonia most effectively.
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