Current Situation and Status of Long-tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Thailand


  • SUCHINDA MALAIVIJITNOND Primate Research Unit, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.
  • YUZURU HAMADA Section of Morphology, Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Inuyama, Japan.


Human-macaque conflict, Hybridization, Long-tailed macaques, Thailand, Translocation, Wildlife management


Long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) are the most frequently encountered primate in Thailand. They are currently considered at low risk for extinction, however, they are threatened by habitat fragmentation or loss, inbreeding or outbreeding depression and hybridization. At present, no management measures have been taken and updated information on their situation and status are urgently needed. We sent questionnaires throughout Thailand to a total of 7,410 sub-districts, and received 1,417 (19.12%) replies. We traveled to the sub-districts from which the positive replies to questionnaires on macaques were obtained, from December 2002 to December 2007 and found long-tailed macaques in 74 locations which ranged from the lower northern and northeastern (ca. 16° 30´ N) to the southernmost part (ca. 6° 30´ N) of Thailand. The distribution of long-tailed macaques at present is similar to that reported 30 years ago, but their habitats have changed from natural forests to temples or recreation parks. On average, 200 monkeys per location were counted and some populations had more than 1,000 individuals. In some locations they were regarded as pests. Local authorities took short-term management measures such as translocation and contraception. Although many troops of Thai longtailed macaques have inflated population densities, some local troops exhibited morphological, genetic and behavioural uniqueness that may be important to conserve. Therefore, management plans and conservation strategies should be established for Thailand’s long-tailed macaque population.




How to Cite

MALAIVIJITNOND, S. and HAMADA, Y. 2008. Current Situation and Status of Long-tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Thailand. Tropical Natural History. 8, 2 (Oct. 2008), 185–204.