Temporal Diversity of the Nymphalids in Kubah National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia


  • Christharina S. Gintoron Centre for Pre-University Studies, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, MALAYSIA
  • Fatimah Abang 2706 Lorong Cendrawasih 1C1, 93050 Kuching, Sarawak, MALAYSIA


diversity, rainfall, Nymphalidae, Kubah, Borneo


Unique microhabitats caused temporal-space separation which also indicates that animals are constrained in their flexibility to adapt to the environment. Arthropods was recorded to be temporally patchy within seasons, and in the tropical region, rainfall fluctuations are somewhat varied although only in a considerable range. These minute variations are still however observed to provide unique microhabitats to the insects and thus knowledge on the effects of the rainfall is still much required. To determine any distribution patterns of the nymphalid butterflies, bait-trapping was conducted from May to November 2009 in Kubah National Park, Sarawak. Even though there was a linear relationship between the total rainfall and numbers of nymphalids, there was no significant correlation between the nymphalids and rainfall distribution (p-value > 0.05). Rainfall in the preceded month could increase the overall nymphalids abundance which coincides with the leaf-flushing peak, suitably for the larval stages. In contrast, heavy rainfall during the data collection could also lead to larval mortality. Rainfall parameter and possibly many more environmental variables are important, as the distribution pattern of the nymphalids are strongly related to the environment.



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How to Cite

Gintoron, C.S. and Abang, F. 2021. Temporal Diversity of the Nymphalids in Kubah National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia. Tropical Natural History. 21, 2 (Jul. 2021), 285–298.



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