Chronological Changes in the Somatic Development of Hoplobatrachus rugulosus (Wiegmann, 1834) (Anura: Dicroglossidae)


  • Thrissawan Traijitt Biological Sciences Program, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND
  • Noppadon Kitana Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND; BioSentinel Research Group (Special Task Force for Activating Research), Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND
  • Wichase Khonsue Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND; BioSentinel Research Group (Special Task Force for Activating Research), Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND
  • Jirarach Kitana Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND; BioSentinel Research Group (Special Task Force for Activating Research), Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND


developmental period, embryology, Gosner stage, Hoplobatrachus rugulosus, tadpole


The rice field frog Hoplobatrachus rugulosus is widely distributed throughout the wetlands of Thailand. It is economically important and a potential experimental subject in many fields of research. To use its development as a biomarker, general information about normal morphological changes during metamorphosis is necessary. In this study, embryos and larvae of H. rugulosus were examined at every stage from fertilization until complete metamorphosis. Their developmental stages were identified using Gosner’s (1960) staging system and the result showed that all morphological characteristics of H. rugulosus were corresponded to those in Gosner’s system. This is the first study that report the period of embryonic and larval development at each stage of H. rugulosus. The embryonic phase occurred within 13-21 hours after fertilization, the hatchling phase continued within 36-44 hours after fertilization, the tadpole phase followed within 20-26 days post hatch, and the metamorph phase finished within 25-33 days post hatch. The rate of somatic development of H. rugulosus was relatively rapid comparing with those of other anurans. These results could be used as crucial developmental data for further research into this species.


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How to Cite

Traijitt, T., Kitana, N., Khonsue, W. and Kitana, J. 2021. Chronological Changes in the Somatic Development of Hoplobatrachus rugulosus (Wiegmann, 1834) (Anura: Dicroglossidae). Tropical Natural History. 21, 1 (Mar. 2021), 184–199.



Original Articles