Blood Cell Morphology and Leukocyte Profile of the Himalayan Newt Tylototriton verrucosus Anderson, 1871 (Urodela: Salamandridae) in Thailand

  • Kotchanun Bunjerdluk Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND
  • Jirarach Kitana Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND
  • Porrawee Pomchote Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND
Keywords: baseline data, hematology, peripheral blood cells, South East Asia, tailed amphibian

Abstract

We examined the blood cell morphology and leukocyte profile in eight adult individuals (three female and five male newts) of the Himalayan newt (Tylototriton verrucosus) found at Doi Chang, Chiang Rai Province, Thailand. The hematology of T. verrucosus was found to be generally similar to other urodeles, despite small differences being observed in the cellular shape and size. The peripheral blood cells of T. verrucosus were erythrocytes, leukocytes (lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils), and thrombocytes. The mean erythrocyte width and length was 20.18 ± 2.58 and 33.15 ± 3.91 µm, respectively. The mean diameter of the lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and a single basophil was 20.38 ± 3.84, 27.73 ± 4.44, 21.87 ± 2.79, 23.86 ± 3.75, and 28.62 µm, respectively. From the differential leukocyte count, the percentage of these leukocytes was 47.94, 0.44, 46.31, 5.25, and 0.06%, respectively. The mean thrombocyte width and length was 11.56 ± 1.67 and 22.62 ± 3.36 µm, respectively. This study will be used as baseline data for other hematological studies of the newt genus Tylototriton in the future.

References

AmphibiaWeb. 2021. Information on amphibian biology and conservation. http://amphibiaweb.org (Accessed 21 January 2021).

Arikan, H. and Çiçek, K. 2010. Morphology of peripheral blood cells from various species of Turkish Herpetofauna. Acta Herpetologica, 5: 179–198.

Arikan, H. and Çiçek, K. 2014. Haematology of amphibians and reptiles: a review. North-Western Journal of Zoology, 10: 109–209.

Atatür, M.K., Arikan, H. and Çevik, İ.E. 1999. Erythrocyte sizes of some anurans from Turkey. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 23: 111–114.

Bain, B.J. and Lewis, M. 2012. Preparation and Staining Methods for Blood and Bone Marrow Films. In: Bain, B.J., Bates, I., Laffan, M.A. and Lewis, S.M. (Eds.), Dacie and Lewis Practical Haematology (11th edition). Churchill Livingstone, London. 57–68 pp.

Bennett, M.F. and Daigle, K.R. 1983. Temperature, stress and the distribution of leukocytes in red-spotted newts, Notophthalmus viridescens. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 153: 81–83.

Campbell, T.W. 2004. Hematology of Amphibians. In: Thrall, M.A. (Ed.), Veterinary Hematology and Clinical Chemistry. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia. 291–297 pp.

Campbell, T.W. 2015. Exotic Animal Hematology and Cytology (4th edition). Wiley-Blackwell, Singapore. 432 pp.

Claver, J.A. and Quaglia, A.I.E. 2009. Comparative morphology, development, and function of blood cells in nonmammalian vertebrates. Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine, 18: 87–97.

Davis, A.K., Maney, D.L. and Maerz, J.C. 2008. The use of leukocyte profiles to measure stress in vertebrates: a review for ecologists. Functional Ecology, 22: 760–772.

Davis, A.K. and Durso, A.M. 2009. White blood cell differentials of northern cricket frogs (Acris c. crepitans) with a compilation of published values from other amphibians. Herpetologica, 65: 260–267.

Davis, A.K., Milanovich, J.R., DeVore, J.L. and Maerz, J.C. 2009. An investigation of factors influencing erythrocyte morphology of red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus). Animal Biology, 59: 201–209.

Department of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation. 2021. https://www.dnp.go.th/Provide/ prohibit_wildlife.htm (Accessed 19 January 2021).

Forzán, M.J., Heatley, J., Russell, K.E. and Horney, B. 2017. Clinical pathology of amphibians: a review. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 46: 11–33.

Hernandez, A. 2016. Crocodile Newts, the Primitive Salamandridae from Asia (Genera Echinotriton and Tylototriton). Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. 415 pp.

Hernandez, A., Escoriza, D., Pomchote, P. and Hou, M. 2019. New localities for Tylototriton uyenoi, T. panhai and T. anguliceps in Thailand with remarks on the southernmost distribution of the genus. The Herpetological Bulletin, 147: 15–18.

Hernandez, A. and Pomchote, P. 2020a. Habitat, distribution and life history of the polytypic Panha’s Crocodile Newt, Tylototriton panhai in northeastern Thailand. Alytes, 37: 25–46.

Hernandez, A. and Pomchote, P. 2020b. New locality of the Angular-headed crocodile newt Tylototriton anguliceps Le et al., 2015, with remarks on the distribution of the genus in Thailand. Herpetology Notes, 13: 993–996.

Hernandez, A. and Pomchote, P. 2020c. New southernmost record for the genus Tylototriton in Asia: Tylototriton uyenoi Nishikawa, Khonsue, Pomchote and Matsui 2013 discovered in Khao Laem National Park, Kanchanaburi province, western Thailand. Bulletin de la Société Herpétologique de France, 175: 164–167.

IUCN. 2021. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2020-3. http://www.iucnredlist.org (Accessed 21 January 2021).
Kuramoto, M. 1981. Relationships between number, size and shape of red blood cells in amphibians. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 69A: 771–775.

Le, D.T., Nguyen, T.T., Nishikawa, K., Nguyen, S.L.H., Pham, A.V., Matsui, M., Bernardes M. and Nguyen, T.Q. 2015. A new species of Tylototriton Anderson, 1871 (Amphibia: Salamandridae) from Northern Indochina. Current Herpetology, 34: 38–50.

Meesawat, S., Kitana, N. and Kitana, J. 2016. Hematology of wild caught Hoplobatrachus rugulosus in Northern Thailand. Asian Herpetological Research, 7: 131–138.

Nishikawa, K., Khonsue, W., Pomchote, P. and Matsui, M. 2013. Two new species of Tylototriton from Thailand (Amphibia: Urodela: Salamandridae). Zootaxa, 3737: 261–279.

Pfeiffer, C.J., Pyle, H. and Asashima, M. 1990. Blood cell morphology and counts in the Japanese newt (Cynops pyrrhogaster). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 21: 56–64.

Pomchote, P., Pariyanonth, P. and Khonsue, W. 2008. Two distinctive color patterns of the Himalayan newt Tylototriton verrucosus (Urodela: Salamandridae) found in Thailand and its implication on geographic segregation. The Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University, 8: 35–43.

Pomchote, P., Khonsue, W., Sapewisut, P., Eto, K. and Nishikawa, K. 2020a. Discovering a population of Tylototriton verrucosus (Caudata: Salamandridae) from Thailand: implications for conservation. Tropical Natural History, 20: 1–15.

Pomchote, P., Khonsue, W., Thammachoti, P., Hernandez, A., Peerachidacho, P., Suwannapoom, C., Onishi, Y. and Nishikawa, K. 2020b. A new species of Tylototriton (Urodela: Salamandridae) from Nan Province, Northern Thailand. Tropical Natural History, 20: 144–161.

Ruiz, G., Rosemann, M. and Veloso, A. 1989. Altitudinal distribution and blood values in the toad, Bufo spinulosus Wiegmann. Comparative Biochemistry Physiology, 94: 643–646.

Salakij, C. 2005. Veterinary Hematology. Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. 664 pp. (in Thai)

Salinas, Z.A., Baraquet, M., Grenat, P.R., Martino, A.L. and Salas, N.E. 2017. Morphology and size of blood cells of Rhinella arenarum (Hensel, 1867) as environmental health assessment in disturbed aquatic ecosystem from central Argentina. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24: 24907–24915.

Solis, M.E., Bandeff, J.M. and Huang, Y.W. 2007. Hematology and serum chemistry of Ozark and eastern hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis). Herpetologica, 63: 285–292.

Thrall, M.A., Weiser, G., Allison, R.W. and Campbell, T.W. 2012. Veterinary Hematology and Clinical Chemical Chemistry (2nd edition). Wiley-Blackwell, Iowa, USA. 784 pp.

Tok, C.V., Tosunoğlu, M., Ayaz, D., Çiçek, K. and Gül, Ç. 2009. Hematology of the Lycian salamander, Lyciasalamandra fazilae. North-Western Journal of Zoology, 5: 321–329.

Tosunoğlu, M., Tok, C.V., Gül, Ç. and Güldali, G. 2008. The blood cells of West Anatolian Lissotriton vulgaris (Linnaeus, 1758). Herpetozoa, 21: 87–91.

Tosunoğlu, M., Tok, C.V., Olgun, K., Özdemır, N. and Gül, Ç. 2011. Hematology of Northern banded newt, Ommatotriton ophryticus (Amphibia: Urodela), from North Anatolia. Russian Journal of Herpetology, 18: 59–64.

Vernberg, J.F. 1955. Hematological studies on salamanders in relation to their ecology. Herpetologica, 11: 129–133.

Wei, J., Li, Y.Y., Wei, L., Ding, G.H., Fan, X.L. and Lin, Z.H. 2015. Evolution of erythrocyte morphology in amphibians (Amphibia: Anura). Zoologia, 32: 360–370.

Winthrobe, M.M. 1933. Variations in the size and hemoglobin content of erythrocytes in the blood of various vertebrates. Folia Haematologie, 51: 32–49.

Wright, K.N. 2001. Amphibian Hematology. In: Wright, K.N. and Whitaker, B.R. (Eds.), Amphibian Medicine and Captive Husbandry. Krieger Publishing, Florida, USA. 129–146 pp.

Zhelev, Z.M., Mehterov, N.H. and Popgeorgiev, G.S. 2016. Seasonal changes of basic erythrocyte-metric parameters in Pelophylax ridibundus (Amphibia: Ranidae) from anthropogenically polluted biotopes in Southern Bulgaria and their role as bioindicators. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 124: 406–417.

Zhelev, Z., Popgeorgiev, G., Ivanov, I. and Boyadzhiev, P. 2017. Changes of erythrocyte-metric parameters in Pelophylax ridibundus (Amphibia: Anura: Ranidae) inhabiting water bodies with different types of anthropogenic pollution in Southern Bulgaria. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24: 17920–17934.

Zhelev, Z.M., Arnaudova D.N., Popgeorgiev G.S. and Tsonev, S.V. 2021. Determinations of erythrocyte sizes in adult Pelophylax ridibundus (Amphibia: Anura: Ranidae) inhabiting industrial area in southern Bulgaria. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 232: 125.
Published
2021-07-26
How to Cite
Bunjerdluk, K., Kitana, J., & Pomchote, P. (2021). Blood Cell Morphology and Leukocyte Profile of the Himalayan Newt Tylototriton verrucosus Anderson, 1871 (Urodela: Salamandridae) in Thailand. Tropical Natural History, 21(2), 274-284. Retrieved from https://li01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/tnh/article/view/251676
Section
Original Articles