Birds Iconography in the Lalitavistara Relief of Borobudur Temple: A Study from Biological and Cultural Perspective

Authors

  • Hidayat Ashari Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense, Research Center for Biology, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Jl. Raya Jakarta Bogor Km 46, Cibinong, West Jawa, INDONESIA
  • Rusdianto Rusdianto Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense, Research Center for Biology, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Jl. Raya Jakarta Bogor Km 46, Cibinong, West Jawa, INDONESIA
  • Ibnu Maryanto Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense, Research Center for Biology, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Jl. Raya Jakarta Bogor Km 46, Cibinong, West Jawa, INDONESIA

Keywords:

Borobudur, Lalitavistara relief, bird

Abstract

In panels of Lalitavistara Relief of Borobudur Temple, sculpted birds that are not yet clearly known for their both species and meanings. This research was conducted by observing 120 panels and recording the emergence of bird species. Furthermore, birds were identified based on morphology, behavior, and habitat preferences, then adjusted to the context and storyline of the panel. There were 22 bird species spread across 31 panels with a total of 133 individuals. Green Peafowl (Pavo muticus) was the species that had the most individual appearances, followed by Rock Dove (Columba livia). The Green Peafowl is a symbol of elegance and luxury, but can also be a symbol of arrogance when showing off its beautiful tail feathers. The Rock Dove is a symbol of news bearers, affection and loyalty. The presence of birds and other fauna is not only a complement to the panel room, art decoration, or the casting of artistic expressions, but implies a deep meaning to be conveyed. Bird behavior can be a time marker of the scene according to the natural behavior of the birds. Bird species can also indicate place the panel scene occurs. The presence of birds and other fauna species presents a new perspective and new dimension on how to tell Lalitavistara story relief.

References

Achmadi, Anang Setyawan., Maryanto, Ibnu, Rusdianto, Maharadatunkamsi, and Dwijayanti, Endah. 2020. Identification of the Symbolic Carvings of Mammal Species in the Story of Lalitavistara Relief of Borobudur Temple. Jurnal Biologi Indonesia 16(2): https://doi.org/111-141. 10.47349/jbi/16022020/111. [Indonesian].

Anandajoti. 2017. Lalitavistara: The life of Gautama Buddha on The relief of Borobudur Temple. Ehipassiko foundation. https://issuu.com/anandajotibhikkhu/docs/Lalitavistara

Cahyandaru, Nahar. 2013. Borobudur Temple Cultural Heritage as an Educational Laboratory. Jurnal Sejarah dan Pembelajarannya, 3(02): 4-20. http://doi.org/10.25273/ajsp.v3i02.1462. [Indonesian].

Coates, Brian J and Bishop, K David. 1997. A guide to the bird of Wallacea: Sulawesi, The Wallacea, Lessr Sunda Island Indonesia. Dove Publication Pty. Ltd.

Collar, N., G. M. Kirwan, and P. F. D. Boesman. 2020. Red-breasted Parakeet (Psittacula alexandri), version 1.0. In Birds of the World (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, J. Sargatal, D. A. Christie, and E. de Juana, Editors). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.rebpar4.01

del Hoyo, J. and Collar, N. J. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK. Introduction to Volume 1: Non-passerines:

del Hoyo, J. and Collar, N. J. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK. Introduction to Volume 2: Passerines. http://datazone.birdlife.org/species/taxonomy

Eaton, J.A., Balen, Bas van., Brickle, Nick W. and Rheindt, Frank E. 2016. Birds of the Indonesian Archipelago: Greater Sundas and Wallacea. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.

Febrianto, R. and M. Idris. 2016. The story of the fauna relief at Borobudur temple. Jurnal Sejarah dan Pembelajaran Sejarah 2(2): 44-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.31851/kalpataru.v2i2.1596. [Indonesian].

Gunarto, Hary. 2011. Digital Preservation of Borobudur World Heritage and Cultural Treasures. Ritsumeikan Center for Asia Pasific Studies (RCAPS) Research Report, Japan.

Hammer, Ø., DAT. Harper and PD. Ryan. 2001. PAST: Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontol Electronica 4(1): 9.http://palaeo-electronica.org/2001_1/past/issue1_01.htm

Harto, DB. 2014. Jataka relief language analysis of Borobudur Temple. Prosiding Seminar Nasional – Seni Tradisonal. [Indonesian].

Istari, Rita and Sulistyanto, Bambang (Ed). 2015. The motifs and meanings of the Javanese temples decoration. Yogyakarta: Kepel Press. [Indonesian].

Kempers, August Johan Bernet. 1976. Angeles Borobudur: Buddhist Mystery in Stone, Decay and Restoration, Mendut and Pawon, Folklife in Ancient Java. Servire/Wassenaar.

Kirno 2012-2013. Decorative animals in the medallion. Corak Jurnal Seni Kriya 2(1): 177-189. https://doi.org/10.24821/corak.v1i2.2323. [Indonesian].

Krom, Nicolaas Johannes. 1927. Barabudur: Archaeo-logical Description. The Hague: Martinus Nijhof. Vol. 1.

Kusen. 1894-1985. Creativity and Independence of Javanese Artists in Cultivating the Influence of Foreign Culture: a case study of the Jawanese temple relief art style between the IX –XVI centuries, the Research and Study of Indonesian Culture Project (Javanology). Directorate General of Culture. https://repository.ugm.ac.id/id/eprint/275574. [Indonesian].

MacKinnon, John and Phillipps, Karen. 1993. A field guide to the birds of Borneo, Sumatra, Jawa, and Bali, the Greater Sunda Islands. Oxford University Press.

Madge, S. and D. A. Christie. 2020. Slender-billed Crow (Corvus enca), version 1.0. In Birds of the World (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, J. Sargatal, D. A. Christie, and E. de Juana, Editors). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.slbcro1.01

Metusala, D., Fauziah., DA Lestari., J. Damaiyani., S. Mas’udah and H. Styawan. 2020. The identification of plantr reliefs in the Lalitavistara storyof Borobudur temple, Central Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 21 (5): 2206-2215. https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d210549.

Patriansyah, Mukhsin. 2020. Study of Structuralism in Producing an Artwork. Besaung Jurnal Seni Desain dan Budaya. 5 (2): https://doi.org/59-64. 10.36982/jsdb.v5i2.996. [Indonesian].

Puspitasari, Dian Eka., Setyawan, Hari., and Rini, Winda Diah Puspita. 2010. Borobudur temple architecture. Magelang: Balai Konservasi Peninggalan Borobudur. [Indonesian].

Raffles, Thomas Stamford. 2008. The History of Java. (translated by Prasetyaningrum, Eko., Nuryati, Agustin, Idda., Mahbubah, Qoryati). Yogyakarta: Narasi.

Read, Herbert. 1984. The Meaning of Art. 1959. (translated by Sp, Soedarso). Yogyakarta : Suku Dayar Sana.

Rusdianto., Maryanto, Ibnu., Ashari, Hidayat., Achmadi, Anang S., Setiawan, Pindi., Mundayat, Aris Arif., Maharadatunkamsi., Sulistyadi, Eko., Setyawan, Hari., Dwijayanti, Endah., and Rahmadi, Cahyo. 2020. Analysis of the Existence of Mammal Species in Five Stories Sections of The Lalitavistara Relief Borobudur Temple. Jurnal Biologi Indonesia 16(2): 153-182. https://doi.org/10.47349/jbi/16022020/153. [Indonesian].

Saidi, Acep Iwan. 2008. Symbolic Narrative of Indonesian Contemporary Art. Yogyakarta: Isac Book. [Indonesian].

Sukmantoro, W., Irham, Mohammad., Novarino, Wilson., Hasudungan, ferry., Kemp, Neville, and Muchtar, Muchamad. 2007. List of Indonesian Birds no. 2. Indonesian Ornithologists’ Union, Bogor. [Indonesian].

Sunyoto, A. 2017. Atlas of Wali Songo. Cetakan ke 7. Depok: Pustaka Liman

Suripto, Bambang Agus. and Pranowo, Lystia. 2001. Relief of Fauna Species and Their Environmental Settings on the Wall Sculpture of Borobudur Temple. Manusia dan Lingkungan 8(l): 37-48. https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18571. [Indonesian].

Tabrani, Primadi. 2018. Principles of Visual Language. Jurnal Budaya Nusantara, 1(2), 173-195. https://doi.org/10.36456/b.nusantara.vol1.no2.a1579. [Indonesian].

Downloads

Published

2021-12-29

How to Cite

Ashari, H. ., Rusdianto, R. ., & Maryanto, I. . (2021). Birds Iconography in the Lalitavistara Relief of Borobudur Temple: A Study from Biological and Cultural Perspective. Tropical Natural History, 21(3), 380–409. Retrieved from https://li01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/tnh/article/view/253401

Issue

Section

Original Articles