A Taxonomic Account of Commelinaceae Subtribe Cyanotinae in Thailand


  • Boonchuang Boonsuk Plant Biology Research Unit, Program in Biology, School of Science, University of Phayao, Phayao 56000, THAILAND
  • Pranom Chantaranothai Department of Biology, Center of Excellence on Biodiversity (BDC) and Applied TaxonomicResearch Center (ATRC), Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, THAILAND: Honorary Research Associate, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, TW9 3AE, UK
  • Chortip Kantachot Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani 34190, THAILAND


Belosynapsis, Cyanotis, Flora of Thailand, synopsis, Taxonomy


Commelinceae subtribe Cyanotinae, which contains one species of Belosynapsis Hassk. and five species of Cyanotis D. Don in Thailand, are described based on morphological data. Keys to the genera and species are presented. Morphological descriptions of both genera are provided, as well as information on each species' distribution, ecology, conservation status, vernacular names, and additional notes. Cyanotis barbata D. Don, Tradescantia ciliata Blume, and T. capitata Blume have also been lectotypified.


Backer, C.A. and Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C. 1968. Flora of Java (Spermatophytes only), volume 3, Wolters-Noordhoff N.V., Groningen, 761 pp.

Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C. 1950. Notes on the Flora of Java, VI. Blumea, 6(2): 363–406.

Blume, C.L. 1823. Catalogus van Eenige der Merkwaardigste Zoo in- als Uitheemse Gewassen te Vinden in 's Lands Plantentuin te Buitenzorg, Tuin s.l. n.d., Batavia, 113 pp.

Blume, C.L. 1827. Enumeratio Plantarum Javae et Insularum Adjacentium, Apud J.W. van Leeuwen, Lugduni Batavorum, 274 pp.

Brenan, J.P.M. 1966. The classification of Commelinaceae. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Botany, 59(380): 349–370.

Brückner, G. 1930. Commelinaceae. In: Engler, A. and Prantl, K. (Eds). Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, eds. 2, 15a, Engelmann, Leipzig, pp. 159–181.

Cherfils, H. 1932. Commélinacées. In: Lecomte, H., Humbert, H. and Gagnepain, F. (Eds). Flore Générale de l'Indo-Chine, volume 6, part 7, Masson et Cie, Editeurs, Paris, pp. 842–934.

Clarke, C.B. 1881. Commelinaceae. In: de Candolle, A. and de Candolle, C. (Eds), Monographiae Phanerogamarum, volume 3, G. Masson, Paris, pp. 113–324.

Dalzell, N.A. 1851. Contributions to the Botany of Western India. In: Hooker, W.J. (Ed.). Hooker's Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany, volume 3, Reeve and Benham, London, pp.134–146.

Don, D. 1825. Prodromus Florae Nepalensis, J. Gale, London, 256 pp.

Faden, R.B. 1998. Commelinaceae. In Kubitzki, K. (Ed.). The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Germany, pp. 109–128.

Faden, R.B. 2000. Commelinaceae. In Dassanayake, M.D. and Clayton W.D. (Eds). A Revised Handbook of the Flora of Ceylon, volume 14, Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands,

pp. 116–196.

Faden, R.B. and Hunt, D.R. 1991. The classification of the Commelinaceae. The Journal of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy, 40: 19–31.

Fischer, C.E.C. 1931. Commelinaceae. In: Gamble, J.S. (Ed.). Flora of Presidency of Madras 3, Adlard and Son Ltd., London, pp. 1533–1552.

Fukuoka, N. and Iwatsuki, K. 2016. Commelinaceae. In: Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. and Ohba, H. (Eds). Flora of Japan, volume IVb, Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo, Japan, pp. 46–51.

Gupta, A.K. 2011. Cyanotis axillaris. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T169042A6567252. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-2.RLTS.T169042A6567252.en. Accessed on 07 August 2023.

Hasskarl, J.C. 1870. Commelinaceae Indicae, Caroli Ueberreuter, Vindobonae, 182 pp.

Hasskarl, J.C. 1871. De Commelinaceis quibusdam novis. Flora, 54(17): 257–267.

Hộ, P. 1993. Cây cỏ Việtnam (An Illustrated Flora of Vietnam), volume 3, part 1, Montréal, 602 pp.

Hooker, J.D. 1894. The Flora of British India, volume 6. Reeve and Co., London, pp. 374–383.

Hong, D.Y. and De Filipps, R.A. 2000. Commelinaceae. In: Wu, Z.Y. and Raven P.H. (Eds). Flora of China, Science Press, Beijing and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, pp. 19–39.

Hunt, D.R. (2001). Commelinaceae. In: Eggli, U. (Ed.). Illustrated Handbook of Succulent Plants: Monocotyledons. Illustrated Handbook of Succulent Plants. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 247–254.

IUCN Standards and Petitions Committee. 2022. Guidelines for using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Version 15.1 Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Committee, 114 pp. http://www.iucnredlist.org/documents/RedListGuidelines.pdf. Accessed 23 July 2023.

Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. and Sanjappa, M. 1989. Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae, Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta, 435 pp.

Kavade,S., Deokule, S., Lakshminarasimhan, P., Diwakar, P. and Punekar, S. 2012. Belosynapsis vivipara (Dalzell) C.E.C. Fisch. (Commelinaceae), a vulnerable spiderwort, rediscovered after sixteen decades from Maharashtra, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 4(6): 2660–2663.

Kuntze, O. 1891. Revisio Generum Plantarum, volume 2, A. Felix, Leipzig, pp. 377–1011.

Lee C.K., Fuse S., Poopath M., Pooma R. and Tamura M.N. 2022. Phylogenetics and infrafamilial classification of Commelinaceae (Commelinales). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 198: 117–130.

Linnaeus, C. von. 1753. Species Plantarum. Impensis Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae, 560 pp.

Linnaeus, C. von. 1767. Systema Naturae Ed. 12, volume 1, Holmiae, 1375 pp.

Linnaeus, C. von. 1771. Mantissa Plantarum, volume 2, Impensis Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae, pp. 143–588.

Loureiro, J. de. 1790. Flora Cochinchinensis, Ulyssipone, 353 pp.

Matsumura, J. and Hayata, B. 1906. Enumeratio Plantarum Formosanarum. The journal of the College of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo, Japan, 22: 1–702.

Merrill, E.D. 1925. An Enumeration of Philippine Flowering Plants, volume 1, Bureau of Printing, Manila, 463 pp.

Nandikar, M.D. and Gurav, R.V. 2014. A revision of the genus Cyanotis D. Don (Commelinaceae) in India. Taiwania, 59(4): 292–314.

Nandikar, M.D. and Gurav, R.V. 2019. Additions to the family Commelinaceae in Flora of India. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity, 12: 333–340.

Noltie, H.J. 1994. Flora of Bhutan, volume 3, part 1: Including a Record of Plants from Sikkim and Darjeeling, Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, Edinburgh, 456 pp.

Peng, C.I., Chen, Y.J. and Wang, J.C. 2000. Notes on Commelinaceae of Taiwan: Cyanotis and Belosynapsis, and the rediscovery of Murdannia edulis. Biological Bulletin of National Taiwan Normal University, 35(2): 77–93.

Plukenet, L. 1962. Phytographia, Sumptibus Autoris, London, t. 121–250.

Rao, R.S. 1964. Indian species of Commelinaceae-miscellaneous notes. Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 25(2): 179–189.

Rao, R.S. and Kammathy, R.V. 1966. Notes on Indian Commelinaceae 5. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 59(379): 305–308.

Ridley, H.N. 1924. The Flora of the Malay Peninsula, volume 4, L. Reeve and Co., Ltd., London, 383 pp.

Shultes, J.A. and Shultes, J.H. 1830. Systema Vegetabilium, volume 7, part 2, Sumtibus J.G. Cottae, Stuttgardtiae, pp. 755–1816.

Sprague, T.A., and Fischer, C.E.C. 1928. Dalzellia or Belosynapsis. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew), 1928(6): 252–254.

Sprengel, C. 1825. Systema Vegetabilium, volume 2, Librariae Dieterichianae, Gottingae, 939 pp.

Sweet, B. 1826. Sweet's Hortus Britannicus, J. Ridgway, London, 492 pp.

Pooma, R. and Suddee, S. (Eds). 2014. Tem Smitinand’s Thai Plant Names, revised edition 2014, Office of the Forest Herbarium, Department of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation, Bangkok.

Thiers, B. 2023. Index Herbariorum: A Global Directory of Public Herbaria and Associated Staff. New York botanical Garden, http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/ih/. Accessed 15 Jan. 2023.

Thitimetharoch, T. 2004. Taxonomic Study of the Family Commelinaceae in Thailand. Ph.D. Thesis in Biology, Khon Kaen University.

Trimen, H. 1885. Note on the Flora of Ceylon. Journal of Botany, British and Foreign, 1: 266–274.

Trimen, H. 1898. A Hand-book to the Flora of Ceylon, volume 4, Dulau and Co., London, 384 pp.

Turland, N. J., Wiersema, J. H., Barrie, F. R., Greuter, W., Hawksworth, D. L., Herendeen, P. S., Knapp, S., Kusber, W.-H., Li, D.-Z., Marhold, K., May, T. W., McNeill, J., Monro, A. M., Prado, J., Price, M. J. & Smith, G. F. (Eds) 2018: International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Shenzhen Code) adopted by the Nineteenth International Botanical Congress Shenzhen, China, July 2017. Regnum Vegetabile 159. Glashütten: Koeltz Botanical Books.

Watve, A. 2011. Cyanotis cristata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T177182A7385188. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-1.RLTS.T177182A7385188.en. Accessed on 07 August 2023.

Wight, R. 1853. Icones Plantarum Indiae Orientalis: or Figures of Indian Plants, volume 6. Madras, pp. 28–34, t. 2065–2089.

Willdenow, C.L. 1799. Species Plantarum, volume 2, G.C. Nauk, Berolini, 823 pp.

rolini, 823 pp.




How to Cite

Boonsuk, B., Chantaranothai, P. and Kantachot, C. 2023. A Taxonomic Account of Commelinaceae Subtribe Cyanotinae in Thailand. Tropical Natural History. 23, 1 (Oct. 2023), 123–138.



Original Articles