Wildlife Species Recorded by Camera Traps in Reforested Lowland Rainforest and Peat Swamp Forest of Gunung Palung National Park, Indonesia


  • Sandy Leo Alam Sehat Lestari, Sukadana, North Kayong Regency, West Kalimantan 78852, INDONESIA
  • Qothrun Izza Alam Sehat Lestari, Sukadana, North Kayong Regency, West Kalimantan 78852, INDONESIA
  • Nina Lester Finley Health In Harmony, Portland, Oregon 97214, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
  • Ibrahim Sumardi Balai Taman Nasional Gunung Palung, Ketapang, Ketapang Regency, West Kalimantan 78813, INDONESIA
  • Juanisa Andiani Alam Sehat Lestari, Sukadana, North Kayong Regency, West Kalimantan 78852, INDONESIA


camera trap, presence, reforestation, wildlife species


We quantified wildlife presence in two reforestation areas of Gunung Palung National Park (GPNP), one of the top biodiversity hotspots in Indonesian Borneo. Wildlife species were monitored using camera traps in two reforested ecosystems: lowland dipterocarp forest and peat swamp forest. The GPNP authority and the non-profit organization Alam Sehat Lestari (ASRI), in affiliation with the non-profit organization Health in Harmony (HIH), have conducted reforestation in the lowland dipterocarp forest since 2009 and the peat swamp forest since 2012. Cameras were placed at 13 locations from December 2020 to August 2022 using point and grid methods. Forty-seven wildlife species were recorded, including mammals (31 species), birds (14 species), and reptiles (2 species). Eighteen of these species are listed as Vulnerable, Endangered, or Critically Endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The wildlife documented in this study indicate that a reforestation approach emphasizing community engagement, long-term partnerships, and ecosystem functioning can support the restoration of heavily degraded lowland rainforest and peat swamp forest to viable habitat.


Bellard, C., Leclerc, C., Leroy, B., Bakkenes, M., Veloz, S., Thuiller, W. and Courchamp, F. 2014. Vulnerability of biodiversity hotspots to global change. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 23(12): 1376–1386.

Berlyn, G.P. and Ashton, P.M.S. 1997. Forests and the Ecosystem Paradigm. Journal of Sustainable Forestry, 7(1–2): 141–157.

Bryan, J.E., Shearman, P.L., Asner, G.P., Knapp, D.E., Aoro, G., Lokes, B., 2013. Extreme differences in forest degradation in Borneo: comparing practices in Sarawak, Sabah, and Brunei. PLoS ONE, 8(7): e69679.

Burton, A.C., Neilson, E., Moreira, D., Ladle, A., Steenweg, R., Fisher, J.T., Bayne, E. and Boutin, S. 2015. REVIEW: Wildlife camera trapping: a review and recommendations for linking surveys to ecological processes. Journal of Applied Ecology, 52(3): 675–685.

Chazdon, R.L. 2013. Making tropical succession and landscape reforestation successful. Journal of Sustainable Forestry, 32(7): 649-658.

Corlett, R.T. and Hau, B.C.H. 2000. Seed dispersal and forest restoration. In: Elliott, S., Kerby, J., Blakesley, D., Hardwick, K., Woods, K. and Anusarnsunthorn, V. (Eds.). Forest Restoration for Wildlife Conservation. International Tropical Timber Organization and The Forest Restoration Research, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, pp. 317–325.

Curran, L.M., Trigg, S.N., McDonald, A.K., Astiani, D., Hardiono, Y.M., Siregar, P., Caniago, I. and Kasischke, E. 2004. Lowland Forest Loss in Protected Areas of Indonesian Borneo. Science, 303(5660): 1000–1003.

Cusack, J.J., Dickman, A.J., Rowcliffe, J.M., Carbone, C., Macdonald, D.W. and Coulson, T. 2015. Random versus Game Trail-Based Camera Trap Placement Strategy for Monitoring Terrestrial Mammal Communities. PLOS ONE, 10(5): e0126373.

Edwards, D.P., Tobias, J.A., Sheil, D., Meijaard, E. and Laurance, W.F. 2014. Maintaining ecosystem function and services in logged tropical forests. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 29(9): 511–520.

Fawzi, N., Helms, J., Emerson, A. and Wibawanto, M. 2020. Forest Restoration Progress and Lessons Learned in Gunung Palung National Park, Indonesia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 32(2): 195–205.

Foster, R.J. and Harmsen, B.J. 2012. A critique of density estimation from camera-trap data. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 76(2): 224–236.

Gaveau, D.L.A., Sloan, S., Molidena, E., Yaen, H., Sheil, D., Abram, N.K., Ancrenaz, M., Nasi, R., Quinones, M., Wielaard, N. and Meijaard, E. 2014. Four decades of forest persistence, clearance and logging on Borneo. PLoS ONE, 9(7): 1–11.

Gunung Palung National Park. 2022. Rencana Pengelolaan Jangka Panjang Balai Taman Nasional Gunung Palung, Kabupaten Kayong Utara, dan Kabupaten Ketapang, Provinsi Kalimantan Barat Periode 2022 - 2031. Ketapang.

Hanski, I., 2002. Metapopulation Ecology. Oxford University Press Inc., New York.

Helms IV, J.A., Woerner, C.R., Fawzi, N.I., Macdonald, A., Juliansyah, Pohnan, E. and Webb, K. 2018. Rapid Response of Bird Communities to Small-Scale Reforestation in Indonesian Borneo. Tropical Conservation Science, 11: 1–8.

Hiller, M.A., Jarvis, B.C., Lisa, H., Paulson, L.J., Pollard, E.H.B. and Stanley, S.A. 2004. Recent Trends in Illegal Logging and a Brief Discussion of Their Causes. Journal of Sustainable Forestry, 19(1–3): 181–212.

Hilty, J. and Merenlender, A. 2000. Faunal indicator taxa selection for monitoring ecosystem health. Biological Conservation, 92(2): 185–197.

Hobbs, M.T. and Brehme, C.S. 2017. An improved camera trap for amphibians, reptiles, small mammals, and large invertebrates. PLOS ONE, 12(10): e0185026.

Hrdina, A. and Romportl, D. 2017. Evaluating Global Biodiversity Hotspots – Very Rich and Even More Endangered. Journal of Landscape Ecology, 10(1): 108–115.

Hughes, A.C. 2017. Understanding the drivers of Southeast Asian biodiversity loss. Ecosphere, 8(1): e01624.

Hughson, D.L., Darby, N. and Dungan, J.D. 2010. Comparison of motion-activated cameras for wildlife investigations. California Fish and Game, 96(2): 101–109.

Jenks, K.E., Chanteap, P., Kanda, D., Peter, C., Cutter, P., Redford, T., Antony, J.L., Howard, J. and Leimgruber, P. 2011. Using Relative Abundance Indices from Camera-Trapping to Test Wildlife Conservation Hypotheses – An Example from Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. Tropical Conservation Science, 4(2): 113–131.

Jones, I.J., MacDonald, A.J., Hopkins, S.R., Lund, A.J., Liu, Z.Y-C., Fawzi, N.I., Purba, M.P., Fankhauser, K., Chamberlin, A.J., Nirmala, M., Blundell, A.G., Emerson, A., Jennings, J., Gaffikin, L., Barry, M., Lopez-Carr, D., Webb, K., De Leo, G.A. and Sokolow, S.H. 2020. Improving rural health care reduces illegal logging and conserves carbon in a tropical forest. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(45): 28515–28524.

Kitamura, S., Suzuki, S., Yumoto, T., Wohandee, P., and Poonswad, P. 2009. Evidence of the consumption of fallen figs by Oriental Pied Hornbill Anthracoceros albirostris on the ground in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. Ornithological Science, 8: 75–79.

Knott, C.D., Kane, E.E., Achmad, M., Barrow, E.J., Bastian, M.L., Beck, J., Blackburn, A., Breeden, T.L., Brittain, N.L.C., Brousseau, J.J., Brown, E.R., Brown, M., Brubaker-Wittman, L.A., Campbell-Smith, G.A., de Sousa, A., DiGiorgio, A.L., Freund, C.A., Gehrke, V.I., Granados, A., Harting, J., Harwell, F.S., Johnson, A., Kanisius, P., Kemsey, J.R., Kurniawan, S.F., Kurniawati, D., Laman, T.G., Marshall, A.J., Naruri, R., O’Connell, C.A., Philp, B.J., Rahman, E., Riyandi, Robinson, N.J., Scott, A.M., Scott, K.S., Setia, T.M., Setiadi, W., Setiawan, E., Sumardi, I., Suro, R.R., Tamariska, F.W., Thompson, M.E., Yaap, B. and Susanto, T.W. 2021. The Gunung Palung Orangutan Project: Twenty-five years at the intersection of research and conservation in a critical landscape in Indonesia. Biological Conservation, 255(February): 108856.

Kolowski, J.M. and Forrester, T.D. 2017. Camera trap placement and the potential for bias due to trails and other features. PLoS ONE, 12(10): 1–20.

Laurance, W.F., Ferreira, L.V., Rankin-de Merona, J.M. and Laurance, S.G. 1998. Rain forest fragmentation and the dynamics of Amazonian tree communities. Ecology, 79(6): 2032–2040.

Leo, S., Supriatna, J., Mizuno, K. and Margules, C. 2022. Indigenous Dayak Iban customary perspective on sustainable forest management, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity, 23(1): 424–435.

Mackinnon, K., Hatta, G., Halim, H. and Mangalik, A. 1996. The Ecology of Kalimantan. Oxford University Press, Singapore.

Magurran, A.E. 2004. Measuring biological diversity. Blackwell Publishing, Cornwall, 256 pp.

Mandujano, S. 2022. RAI: Estimation of Relative Abundance Index from camera-traps. R package version 0.1.0.

Matthews, T.J., Cottee-Jones, H.E., and Whittaker, R.J. 2014. Habitat fragmentation and the species-area relationship: a focus on total species richness obscures the impact of habitat loss on habitat specialists. Diversity and Distributions, 20: 1136–1146.

Matthews, T.J. and Whittaker, R.J. 2015. REVIEW: On the species abundance distribution in applied ecology and biodiversity management. Journal of Applied Ecology, 52(2): 443–454.

Meijaard, E. and Sheil, D. 2007. Is wildlife research useful for wildlife conservation in the tropics? A review for Borneo with global implications. Biodiversity and Conservation, 16(11): 3053–3065.

Ministry of Agriculture. 1981. Penunjukan Kelompok Hutan G. Pekayang, G. Seberuang, S. Labuhan Batu dan Sekitarnya Seluas 60.000 Ha yang Terletak di Daerah Tk.II Ketapang, Daerah Tk.I Kalimantan Barat sebagai Kawasan Hutan dengan Fungsi Sebagai Suaka Margasatwa., Pub. L. No. SK. 1014/Kpts/Um/12/1981, 2. Indonesia.

Ministry of Forestry. 1990. Taman Nasional - Taman Nasional., Pub. L. No. SK. 448/Menhut-VI/90, 3. Indonesia.

Ministry of Forestry. 2014. Penetapan Kawasan Hutan Taman Nasional Gunung Palung Seluas 108.043,90 hektar., Pub. L. No. SK. 4191/Menhut-VII/KUH/2014. Indonesia.

Mittermeier, R.A., Turner, W.R., Larsen, F.W., Brooks, T.M. and Gascon, C. 2011. Global Biodiversity Conservation: The Critical Role of Hotspots. In: Biodiversity Hotspots. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg, Volume 49, pp. 3–22.

Mohd-Azlan, J. and Engkamat, L. 2013. Camera Trapping and Conservation in Lanjak Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary, Sarawak, Borneo. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 61(1): 397–405.

Mohd-Azlan, J., Nurul-Asna, H., Jailan, T.S., Tuen, A.A., Engkamat, L., Abdillah, D.N., Zainudin, R. and Brodie, J.F. 2018. Camera trapping of terrestrial animals in Tanjung Datu National Park, Sarawak, Borneo. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 66: 587–594.

Molloy, S.W. 2018. A Practical Guide to Using Camera Traps for Wildlife Monitoring in Natural Resource Management Projects. Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, 28 pp.

Myers, N., Mittermeier, R.A., Mittermeier, C.G., da Fonseca, G.A.B. and Kent, J. 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature, 403(6772): 853–858.

Nuttall, M.N., Griffin, O., Fewster, R.M., McGowan, P.J.K., Abernethy, K., O’Kelly, H., Nut, M., Sot, V. and Bunnefeld, N. 2022. Long‐term monitoring of wildlife populations for protected area management in Southeast Asia. Conservation Science and Practice, 4(2): 1–17.

O’Brien, T.G., Kinnaird, M.F. and Wibisono, H.T. 2003. Crouching tigers, hidden prey: Sumatran tiger and prey populations in a tropical forest landscape. Animal Conservation, 6(2): 131–139.

Ocampo-Peñuela, N., Garcia-Ulloa, J., Kornecki, I., Philipson, C.D. and Ghazoul, J. 2020. Impacts of Four Decades of Forest Loss on Vertebrate Functional Habitat on Borneo. Frontiers in Forests and Global Change, 3(May): 1–13.

Onda, N., Zamzani, F. and Masuda, M. 2008. Effectiveness of buffer zone support programs in mitigating illegal logging by rural people: A case of Gunung Palung National Park in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Tropics, 17(2): 109–117.

Palmer, M.S., Swanson, A., Kosmala, M., Arnold, T. and Packer, C. 2018. Evaluating relative abundance indices for terrestrial herbivores from large-scale camera trap surveys. African Journal of Ecology, 56(4): 791–803.

Rachmat, H.H., Ginoga, K.L., Lisnawati, Y., Hidayat, A., Imanuddin, R., Fambayun, R.A., Yulita, K.S. and Susilowati, A. 2021. Generating Multifunctional Landscape through Reforestation with Native Trees in the Tropical Region: A Case Study of Gunung Dahu Research Forest, Bogor, Indonesia. Sustainability, 13(21): 11950.

Ruiz-Jaén, M.C. and Aide, T.M. 2005. Vegetation structure, species diversity, and ecosystem processes as measures of restoration success. Forest Ecology and Management, 218(1-3): 159-173.

Ruwaimana, M., Anshari, G.Z., Silva, L.C.R. and Gavin, D.G. 2020. The oldest extant tropical peatland in the world: a major carbon reservoir for at least 47,000 years. Environmental Research Letters, 15(11): 114027.

Semper-Pascual, A., Bischof, R., Milleret, C., Beaudrot, L., Vallejo-Vargas, A.F., Ahumada, J.A., Akampurira, E., Bitariho, R., Espinosa, S., Jansen, P.A., Kiebou-Opepa, C., Moreira Lima, M.G., Martin, E.H., Mugerwa, B., Rovero, F., Salvador, J., Santos, F., Uzabaho, E. and Sheil, D. 2022. Occupancy winners in tropical protected forests: a pantropical analysis. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 289(1978): 1–9.

Silveira, L., Jácomo, A.T.A. and Diniz-Filho, J.A.F. 2003. Camera trap, line transect census and track surveys: a comparative evaluation. Biological Conservation, 114(3): 351–355.

Smit, J., Pozo, R.A., Cusack, J.J., Nowak, K. and Jones, T. 2017. Using camera traps to study the age–sex structure and behaviour of crop-using elephants Loxodonta africana in Udzungwa Mountains National Park, Tanzania. Oryx, 53(2): 368–376.

Soehartono, T. and Mardiastuti, A. 2014. National Park Governance in Indonesia Lessons Learned from Seven National Parks. Ministry of Forestry and Environment, Republic of Indonesia, Bogor, 78 pp.

Stojanovic, D., Webb, M.H., Alderman, R., Porfirio, L.L. and Heinsohn, R. 2014. Discovery of a novel predator reveals extreme but highly variable mortality for an endangered migratory bird. Diversity and Distributions, 20(10): 1200–1207.

Sudrajat, J., Sawerah, S., Permatasari, N., Suharyani, A., Karmoni, A., Anshari, G.Z., Wardhana, D. and Rossanda, D. 2018. People’s views towards Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity, 19(3): 1138–1146.

Suwanrat, S., Ngoprasert, D., Sutherland, C., Suwanwaree, P. and Savini, T. 2015. Estimating density of secretive terrestrial birds (Siamese Fireback) in pristine and degraded forest using camera traps and distance sampling. Global Ecology and Conservation, 3: 596–606.

Wayne, A.F., Maxwell, M.A., Ward, C.G., Christos, V., Wilson, I.J. and Dawson, K.E. 2013. Woylie Conservation and Research Project: Progress Report 2010-2013. Perth, 291 pp.

Webb, C.O. 1997. Seedling ecology and tree diversity in a Bornean Rain Forest. PhD Thesis. Dartmouth College, New Hampshire, 215 pp.

Webb, K., Jennings, J. and Minovi, D. 2018. A community-based approach integrating conservation, livelihoods, and health care in Indonesian Borneo. The Lancet Planetary Health, 2: S26.

Yoshikura, T., Amano, M., Chikaraishi, H., Supriyanto, B. and Wardhana, D. 2016. Evaluation of Appropriate Identification of Deforestation Agents and Drivers for Designing REDD+ Readiness Activities through an Examination of the Area around Gunung Palung National Park, Indonesia. Open Journal of Forestry, 06(02): 106–122.




How to Cite

Leo, S. , Izza, Q. , Finley, N.L. , Sumardi, I. and Andiani, J. 2024. Wildlife Species Recorded by Camera Traps in Reforested Lowland Rainforest and Peat Swamp Forest of Gunung Palung National Park, Indonesia. Tropical Natural History. 24, 1 (Apr. 2024), 8–19.