Main Article Content
This study describes antimicrobial properties of modified films prepared by incorporation of cinnamaldehyde (CH) into the solution of exopolysaccharide (EPS). EPS was produced by Aureobasidium pullulans YTP6-14 and partial physical properties were investigated. CH exhibited high antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal at low concentration. The highest and the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was observed against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis at 1.484 and 0.093 mg/mL, respectively. Film forming solutions containing CH 24 and 30 mg/mL were chosen to form the films. The film without CH was thin, smooth, homogeneous, colorless and odorless while the incorporated film was slightly thicker and inhomogeneous in the matrix, exhibited more yellow tinge, and less transparent with cinnamon odor. Moreover, the modified polysaccharide film with 30 mg/mL CH exhibited lower water vapor permeability. Amount of CH (%CH) was lost during film preparation (approximately 70%) and gradually decreased every week but remained higher than MIC value for at least 5 weeks. The antimicrobial activity of the films was observed in both culture broth and agar plate. The polysaccharide film with CH 30 mg/mL showed the highest antimicrobial activity against all strains.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Copyrights of all articles in the Journal of Food Technology available in print or online are owned by Siam University and protected by law.
Diab, T., Biliaderis, C.G., Gerasopoulos, D. and Sfakiotakis, E. (2001). Physicochemical properties and application of pullulan edible films and coatings in fruit preservation. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 81(10): 988-1000.
Shi, L. (2016). Bioactivities, isolation and purification methods of polysaccharides from natural products: A review. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 92: 37-48.
López, C.G., Fernández, F.A., Sevilla, J.F., Fernández, J.S., García, M.C. and Grima, E.M. (2009). Utilization of the cyanobacteria Anabaena sp. ATCC 33047 in CO2 removal processes. Bioresource Technology. 100(23): 5904-5910.
Thompson, J.C. and He, B.B. (2006). Characterization of crude glycerol from biodiesel production from multiple feedstocks. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 22(2): 261-265.
Donot, F., Fontana, A., Baccou, J. C. and Schorr-Galindo, S. (2012). Microbial exopolysaccharides: main examples of synthesis, excretion, genetics and extraction. Carbohydrate Polymers. 87(2): 951-962.
Espitia, P. J. P., Du, W. X., de Jesús Avena-Bustillos, R., Soares, N. D. F. F. and McHugh, T. H. (2014). Edible films from pectin: Physical-mechanical and antimicrobial properties-A review. Food Hydrocolloids. 35: 287-296.
Galus, S. and Kadzinska, J. (2015). Food applications of emulsion-based edible films and coatings. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 45(2): 273-283.
Xu, Q., Chen, C., Rosswurm, K., Yao, T. and Janaswamy, S. (2016). A facile route to prepare cellulose-based films. Carbohydrate Polymers. 149: 274-281.
Zolfi, M., Khodaiyan, F., Mousavi, M. and Hashemi, M. (2014). The improvement of characteristics of biodegradable films made from kefiran–whey protein by nanoparticle incorporation. Carbohydrate Polymers. 109: 118-125.
Aider, M. (2010). Chitosan application for active bio-based films production and potential in the food industry. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 43(6): 837-842.
Dutta, P.K., Tripathi, S., Mehrotra, G.K. and Dutta, J. (2009). Perspectives for chitosan based antimicrobial films in food applications. Food Chemistry. 114(4): 1173-1182.
Leathers, T.D. (2003). Biotechnological production and applications of pullulan. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 62(5-6): 468-473.
Singh, R.S., Saini, G.K. and Kennedy, J.F. (2008). Pullulan: microbial sources, production and applications. Carbohydrate Polymers. 73(4): 515-531.
Ravella, S.R., Quiñones, T.S., Retter, A., Heiermann, M., Amon, T. and Hobbs, P.J. (2010). Extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production by a novel strain of yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. Carbohydrate Polymers. 82(3): 728-732.
Gniewosz, M., Synowiec, A., Krasniewska, K., Przybył, J. L., Baczek, K. and Weglarz, Z. (2014). The antimicrobial activity of pullulan film incorporated with meadowsweet flower extracts (Filipendulae ulmariae flos) on postharvest quality of apples. Food Control. 37: 351-361.
Al-Bayati, F.A. and Mohammed, M.J. (2009). Isolation, identification, and purification of cinnamaldehyde from Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark oil. An antibacterial study. Pharmaceutical Biology. 47(1): 61-66.
Gallucci, M.N., Oliva, M., Casero, C., Dambolena, J., Luna, A., Zygadlo, J. and Demo, M. (2009). Antimicrobial combined action of terpenes against the food borne microorganisms Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Flavour and Fragrance Journal. 24(6): 348-354.
Inouye, S., Takizawa, T. and Yamaguchi, H. (2001). Antibacterial activity of essential oils and their major constituents against respiratory tract pathogens by gaseous contact. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 47(5): 565-573.
Ye, H., Shen, S., Xu, J., Lin, S., Yuan, Y. and Jones, G.S. (2013). Synergistic interactions of cinnamaldehyde in combination with carvacrol against food-borne bacteria. Food Control. 34(2): 619-623.
Shreaz, S., Wani, W. A., Behbehani, J. M., Raja, V., Irshad, M., Karched, M., et al. (2016). Cinnamaldehyde and its derivatives, a novel class of antifungal agents. Fitoterapia. 112: 116-131.
Thaniyavarn, J., Jindamarakot, S., Am-in, S., Luepongpattana, S., Yoochang, T., Poomtien, J., et al. (2013). Yeast biodiversity in the coastal area of Koh Si Chang and their potential as biosurfactant producers. Proceedings of the 25th Annual Meeting of the Thai Society for Biotechnology and International Conference. Vol.25, pp. 265-274. October 16-19, 2013. Bangkok, Thailand.
Duan, X., Chi, Z., Wang, L. and Wang, X. (2008). Influence of different sugars on pullulan production and activities of α-phosphoglucose mutase, UDPG-pyrophosphorylase and glucosyl transferase involved in pullulan synthesis in Aureobasidium pullulans Y68. Carbohydrate Polymers. 73(4): 587-593.
Akepaopun, S. (2015). Production, characterization and film forming from exopolysaccharides from Aureobasidium pullulans YTP6-14. Master Thesis, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University.
Wiegand, I., Hilpert, K. and Hancock, R. E. (2008). Agar and broth dilution methods to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antimicrobial substances. Nature Protocols. 3(2): 163.
Ramaprasad, A.T., Latha, D. and Rao, V. (2017). Synthesis and characterization of polypyrrole grafted chitin. Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids. 104: 169-174.
Valgas, C., Souza, S.M.D., Smânia, E.F. and Smânia Jr, A. (2007). Screening methods to determine antibacterial activity of natural products. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 38(2): 369-380.
Xu, S., Chen, X. and Sun, D.W. (2001). Preservation of kiwifruit coated with an edible film at ambient temperature. Journal of Food Engineering. 50(4): 211-216.
Pathare, P.B., Opara, U.L. and Al-Said, F.A.J. (2013). Colour measurement and analysis in fresh and processed foods: a review. Food and Bioprocess Technology. 6(1): 36-60.
McHugh, T.H., Avena Bustillos, R. and Krochta, J.M. (1993). Hydrophilic edible films: modified procedure for water vapor permeability and explanation of thickness effects. Journal of Food Science. 58(4): 899-903.
Friedman, M., Kozukue, N. and Harden, L.A. (2000). Cinnamaldehyde content in foods determined by gas chromatography− mass spectrometry. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 48(11): 5702-5709.
Ooi, L.S., Li, Y., Kam, S.L., Wang, H., Wong, E.Y. and Ooi, V.E. (2006). Antimicrobial activities of cinnamon oil and cinnamaldehyde from the Chinese medicinal herb Cinnamomum cassia Blume. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine. 34(3): 511-522.
Xie, X.M., Fang, J.R. and Xu, Y. (2004). Study of antifungal effect of cinnamaldehyde and citral on Aspergillus flavus. Food Science. 25(9): 32-34.
Balaguer, M.P., Lopez-Carballo, G., Catala, R., Gavara, R. and Hernandez-Munoz, P. (2013). Antifungal properties of gliadin films incorporating cinnamaldehyde and application in active food packaging of bread and cheese spread foodstuffs. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 166(3): 369-377.
Vaara M. (1992) Agents that increase the permeability of the outer membrane. Microbiology Reviews. 56: 395–411
Nikaido H. (1994) Prevention of drug access to bacterial targets: Permeability barriers and active efflux. Science. 264: 382–388.
Zivanovic, S., Chi, S. and Draughon, A.F. (2005). Antimicrobial activity of chitosan films enriched with essential oils. Journal of Food science. 70(1): 45-51.
Wong, D.W.S. and Falatko. (1989). Mechanism and theory in food chemistry (Vol. 115). Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
Buchanan, R.E. (1918). Life phases in a bacterial culture. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 23(2): 109-125.
Han, J.H., Aristippos, G. (2005). Edible films and coatings-15: A review. Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam, Netherlands.