Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Ma Khuan Dipping Sauce Thickened by Xanthan Gum

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Naksit Panyoyai
Pilunthasut Suwannalert
Monika Seng
Kaewarin Saiboonta


The two research objectives were 1) to compare the thickness of Ma Khuan dipping sauce containing 0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1% of xanthan gum and effect of temperature in between 25-85oC on its viscosity, and 2) to compare the antioxidant activities of phytochemicals in the sauce in the forms of Ma Khuan powder or oil. It was found that the sauce was classified as acid food at pH 3.4. The higher the xanthan gum content in the sauce, the higher the total soluble solids up to 62oBrix. The physical properties of a product with 1% xanthan gum were brighter in colour, and higher in consistency and adhesiveness. Coating ability of cooked meat ball and viscosity of sauce at an ambient temperature increased, but flowability of sauce decreased as compare to the control (p£0.05). In addition, an increase in the temperature from 25 to 85oC reduced the viscosity. With comparison of the sauce with 2% Ma Khuan powder and 2% Ma Khuan oil at a constant 0.5% xanthan gum, the sauce with Ma Khuan powder contained higher phenolic and flavonoid compounds, as well as higher antioxidant activities (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP) than the sauce added with Ma Khuan oil (p£0.05). The sauce was safe form food pathogens. Therefore, the Ma Khuan dipping sauce had a stable viscosity, flowability, and a higher antioxidant efficiency than control.

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Panyoyai, N., Suwannalert, P., Seng, M., & Saiboonta, K. (2022). Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Ma Khuan Dipping Sauce Thickened by Xanthan Gum. Journal of Food Technology, Siam University, 17(2), 126–140. Retrieved from
บทความวิจัย (Research Articles)


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