Heavy Metal Content and Spatial Distribution to Determine the Water Pollution Index in Depapre Waters, Papua, Indonesia

Main Article Content

Baigo Hamuna*
Rosye Hefmi Rechnelty Tanjung


A determination of water quality should be conducted as a reference to determine the status of pollution in waters. This study aims to determine the content and distribution of several heavy metals and to determine the pollution index of those heavy metals in Depapre waters, Jayapura Regency, Papua. The sampling of seawater was conducted in October 2017 at five observation stations. The results were then compared to the quality standards of seawater for marine biota based on the Decree of the Minister of Environment No. 51 year 2004. Heavy metal concentrations in the seawater samples were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The results showed that concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn ranged between 0.00-0.003 mg/l, 0.001-0.005 mg/l, 0.464-0.600 mg/l, and 0.003-0.008 mg/l, respectively. Mercury was not detected because its concentration was lower than the detection limit of the tool used. The Hg, Pb, and Zn concentrations fell within the concentration limits specified in the quality standards of seawater for marine biota, whereas the Cd concentrations at stations 1, 2, and 4, and Cu concentrations at all observation stations exceeded the limits specified in the quality standards of seawater for marine biota. Based on the water pollution index, all observation stations fell into the moderately polluted category with a pollution index range of 6.94-7.34. The Cu concentration was the biggest contributor to a high pollution index in the Depapre waters, Jayapura Regency.


Keywords: Depapre waters; heavy metals; water pollution index; water quality standard

*Corresponding author: Tel.: +62 821 9980 1101

           E-mail: bhamuna@yahoo.com.sg


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Research Articles


[1] Chen, C.-W., Kao, C.-M., Chen, C.-F. and Dong, C.D., 2007., Distribution and accumulation of heavy metals in the sediments of Kaohsiung harbor, Taiwan. Chemosphere, 66(8), 1431-1440.
[2] Drira, Z., Sahnoun, H. and Ayadi, H., 2017. Spatial distribution and source identification of heavy metals in surface waters of three coastal areas of Tunisia. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 26(3), 1057-1069.
[3] Hamuna, B., Tanjung, R.H.R. and Alianto, 2019. Assessment of water quality and pollution index in coastal waters of Mimika, Indonesia. Journal of Ecological Engineering, 20(2), 87-94.
[4] Tanjung, R.H.R., Hamuna, B. and Yonas, M.N., 2019. Assessing heavy metal contamination in marine sediments around the coastal waters of Mimika Regency, Indonesia. Journal of Ecological Engineering, 20(11), 35-42.
[5] Suryono, C.A. and Rochaddi, B., 2013. Connectivity heavy metals in shallow groundwater, sediment and seawater in coastal area. Ilmu Kelautan: Indonesian Journal of Marine Science, 18(2), 91-96. [in Indonesian]
[6] Hutagalung, H.P., Setiapermana, D. and Khozanah., 1997. Organochlorine, oil and heavy metals in Siak estuary, Riau, Indonesia. Proceedings of the ASEAN Canada Technical Conference on Marine Science, Penang, Malaysia, June 24-29, 1996, 817 pp.
[7] Ismarti, I., Ramses, R., Amelia, F. and Suheryanto, S., 2017. Concentration of copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) in seagrass Enhalus accoroides harvested from Batam waters, Riau Islands, Indonesia. Depik, 6(1), 23-30. [in Indonesian]
[8] Koropitan, A.F. and Cordova, M.R., 2017. Study of heavy metal distribution and hydrodynamic simulation in green mussel culture net, Cilincing water - Jakarta Bay. Makara Journal of Science, 21(2), 91-99.
[9] Riza, F., Bambang, A.N. and Kismartini., 2016. Water environment pollution of heavy metals Pb, Cd and Hg in Jepara Kartini beach Central Java, Indonesia. Research Journal of Marine Sciences, 4(1), 1-4.
[10] Tjahjono, A., Bambang, A.N. and Anggoro, S., 2017. Analysis of heavy metal content of Pb in ballast water tank of commercial vessels in port of Tanjung Emas Semarang, Central Java Province. Journal of Ecological Engineering, 18(2), 7-11.
[11] Tjahjono, A. and Suwarno, D., 2018. The spatial distribution of heavy metal lead and cadmium pollution and coliform abundance of waters and surface sediment in Demak. Journal of Ecological Engineering, 19(4), 43-54.
[12] Tupan, C.I. and Uneputty, P.A., 2017. Concentration of heavy metals lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in water, sediment and seagrass Thalassia hemprichii in Ambon Island waters. AACL Bioflux, 10(6), 1610-1617.
[13] Hariyadi, S., Muflih, A., Mashar, A., Widigdo, B. and Wardiatno, Y., 2017. Spatial distribution of some heavy metals in the sediments of Tangerang Coastal waters, Banten Province, Indonesia. AES Bioflux, 9(2), 120-134.
[14] Arifin, Z., 2011. Heavy metals concentrations in water, sediment and biota in Kelabat bay, Bangka Island. Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis, 3(1), 104-114. [in Indonesian]
[15] Hananingtyas, I., 2017. Studi pencemaran kandungan logam berat timbal (Pb) dan kadmium (Cd) pada ikan tongkol (Euthynnus sp.) di Pantai Utara Jawa. BIOTROPIC: The Journal of Tropical Biology, 1(2), 41-50. [in Indonesian]
[16] Kementerian Negara Lingkungan Hidup., 2003. Keputusan Menteri Lingkungan Hidup Nomor 115 Tahun 2003 Tentang Penetapan Status Mutu Air. Jakarta: Kementerian Negara Lingkungan Hidup. [in Indonesian]
[17] Nemerow, N.L. and Sumitomo, H., 1970. Benefits of Water Quality Enhancement. Report No. 16110 DAJ, prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
[18] Zulfa, N., Effendi, H. and Riani, E., 2016. Preliminary rapid fishing port water quality assessment with pollution index. AES Bioflux, 8(1), 96-106.
[19] Effendi, H. 2016., River water quality preliminary rapid assessment using pollution index. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 33(2016), 562-567.
[20] Sutadian, A.D., Muttil, N., Yilmaz, A.G. and Perera, B.J.C., 2018. Development of a water quality index for rivers in West Java Province, Indonesia. Ecological Indicators, 85, 966-982.
[21] Saraswati, S.P., Ardion, M.V., Widodo, Y.H. and Hadisusanto, S., 2019. Water quality index performance for river pollution control based on better ecological point of view (a case study in Code, Winongo, Gadjah Wong streams). Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum, 5(1), 47-55.
[22] Widodo, T., Budiastuti, M.T.S. and Komariah., 2019. Water quality and pollution index in the Grenjeng River, Boyolali Regency, Indonesia. Caraka Tani: Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 34(2), 150-161.
[23] Yani, A., Amin, M., Rohman, F., Suarsini, E. and Haerunnisa., 2019. Water quality and pollution index of Lake Tempe in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Pollution Research, 38(3), 568-574.
[24] Hamuna, B., Tanjung, R.H.R., Suwito, Maury, H.K. and Alianto, 2018. Kajian kualitas air laut dan indeks pencemaran berdasarkan parameter fisika-kimia di perairan Distrik Depapre, Jayapura. Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan, 16(1), 35-43. [in Indonesian]
[25] Kementerian Negara Lingkungan Hidup., 2004. Keputusan Menteri Negara Lingkungan Hidup Nomor 51 Tahun 2004 Tentang Baku Mutu Air Laut. Jakarta: Kementerian Negara Lingkungan Hidup. [in Indonesian]
[26] Childs, C., 2004. Interpolating Surfaces in ArcGIS Spatial Analyst, Esri Education Series. [online] Available at: https://www.esri.com/news/arcuser/0704/files/interpolating.pdf
[27] Yang, C., Kao, S., Lee, F. and Hung, P., 2004. Twelve different interpolation methods: A case study of Surfer 8.0. 20th International Congress for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing; ISPRS XXth Congress, 35(B2), 778-785.
[28] Yasrebi, J., Saffari, M., Fathi, H., Karimian, N., Moazallahi, M. and Gazni, R., 2009. Evaluation and comparison of ordinary kriging and inverse distance weighting method for prediction of spatial variability of some soil chemical parameters. Research Journal of Biological Science, 4(1), 93-102.
[29] Dunca, A.M., 2018. Water pollution and water quality assessment of major transboundary rivers from Banat (Romania). Journal of Chemistry, 2018, 1-8.
[30] Pinet, P.R., 2009. Invitation to Oceanography. 5th ed. Ontario: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
[31] Arifin, Z. and Fadhlina, D., 2009. Fraksinasi logam berat Pb, Cd, Cu dan Zn dalam sedimen dan bioavailabilitasnya bagi biota di perairan Teluk Jakarta. Ilmu Kelautan: Indonesian Journal of Marine Science, 14(1), 27-32. [in Indonesian]
[32] Edward, 2015. Evaluation on heavy metals pollution in sediment in Morotai Island waters, North of Maluku. Depik, 4(2), 95-106. [in Indonesian]
[33] Siregar, T.H. and Murtini, J.T., 2008. Kandungan logam berat pada beberapa lokasi perairan Indonesia pada tahun 2001 sampai dengan 2005. Squalen, 3(1), 7-15. [in Indonesian]
[34] Sagala, S.L., Bramawanto, R., Kuswardani A.R.T.D. and Pranowo, W.S., 2014. Distribution of heavy metals in Natuna coastal waters. Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis, 6(2), 297-310. [in Indonesian]
[35] Sagala, S.L., Kusumaningtyas, M.A., Adi, R.A., Kuswardani, A.R.T.D. and Pranowo, W.S., 2013. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Natuna coastal waters. Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution, 10(4), 25-31.
[36] Laing, G.D., Vanthuyne, D., Tack, F.M.G. and Verloo, M.G., 2007. Factors affecting metal mobility and bioavailability in the superficial intertidal sediment layer of the Scheldt estuary. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management, 10(1), 33-40.
[37] Palar, H., 2008. Pencemaran dan Etoksiologi Logam Berat. Jakarta: PT Rineka Cipta. [in Indonesian]
[38] Hayes, F., Spurgeon, D.J., Lofts, S. and Jones, L., 2018. Evidence-based logic chains demonstrate multiple impacts of trace metals on ecosystem services. Journal of Environmental Management, 223, 150-164.
[39] Zhao, D., Li, J., Lv, L., Zhang, M., Liu, Z. and An, S., 2019. Effect of cadmium contamination on the eutrophic secondary pollution of aquatic macrophytes by litter decomposition. Journal of Environmental Management, 231, 1100-1105.

[40] Aly-Salem, D.M.S., Khaled, A., El-Nemr, A. and El-Sikaily, A., 2014. Comprehensive risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments along the Egyptian Red Sea coast. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 40, 349-362.
[41] Popović, N.Z., Đuknić, J.A., Atlagić, J.Z.C., Raković, M.J., Marinković, N.S., Marinković, B.P. and Paunović, M.M., 2016. Application of the water pollution index in the assessment of the ecological status of rivers: a case study of the Sava river, Serbia. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica, 68(1), 97-102.