Phytochemical Screening and Fruit Quality of Commercial Eggplants

Main Article Content

Hathairat Chokthaweepanich*
Suwalak Sriwicha
Anyamanee Auvuchanon
Suriyan Supapvanich


Ten commercial eggplant cultivars and two allies were collected from Northeastern region of Thailand in order to examine fruit quality and screen for selected phytochemicals. Eggplants were classified into three species including Solanum torvum, S. violaceum and S. melongena. There were 10 cultivars in S. melongena (commercial eggplants) containing cv. ‘Makhuea kai tao khaw’, ‘Makhuea khuen’, ‘Makhuea pro chao phraya’, ‘Makhuea pro look lai’, ‘Makhuea pro muang’, ‘Makhuea tor lae kaew’, ‘Makhuea tor lae khaw’, ‘Makhuea yao kaew’, ‘Makhuea yao khaw’, and ‘Makhuea yao muang’. The analysis indicated that there were significant differences (p £ 0.05) in fruit quality traits including color, thickness, hardness, TSS and moisture. All samples could be divided into three groups based on fruit color including white, purple, and green groups. The commercial eggplants had more thickness than S. torvum and S. violaceum, but these two species had more TSS contents than commercial eggplants. The results of phytochemical screening showed that S. torvum tended to have higher alkaloid, tannin, saponin and steroid contents from the staining technique. Furthermore, ‘Makhuea yao muang’ showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging capacity (49.33%) compared to all others. The principal component and cluster analysis based on correlation of fruit traits and phytochemicals showed that all commercial eggplants were clustered in the same group. The correlation analysis indicated that TSS contents positively correlated with saponin and steroid, while TSS contents negatively correlated with thickness and moisture contents. As this study, commercial eggplants showed higher fruit quality and antioxidant activity than related species.


Keywords: eggplant; Solanum spp.; fruit quality; phytochemicals; antioxidant activity

*Corresponding author: Tel.: (+66)939159615

                                             E-mail: [email protected]


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Research Articles


[1] Frodin, D.G., 2004. History and concepts of big plant genera. Taxon, 53(3), 753-776.
[2] Bohs, L., 2005. Major clades in Solanum based on ndhF sequence data. In: D.C. Keating, V.C. Hollowell and T.B. Croat, eds. A Festschrift for William G. D’Arcy: The Legacy of a Taxonomist [Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, Vol. 104. St. Louis: Missouri Botanical Garden Press, pp. 27-49.
[3] Wu, Z.Y. and Raven, P.H. 1994. Flora of China Vol.17: (Verbenaceae Through Solanaceae). Beijing: Science Press.
[4] de Padua, L.S., Bunyapraphatsara, N. and Lemmons, R.H.M.J., 1999. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No.12: Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 1. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers.
[5] Knapp, S., Vorontsova, M.S. and Särkinen, T., 2019. Dichotomous keys to the species of Solanum L. (Solanaceae) in continental Africa, Madagascar (incl. the Indian Ocean islands), Macaronesia and the Cape Verde Islands. PhytoKeys, 127, 39-76.
[6] Smitinand, T. 2014. Thai Plant Names. Bangkok: The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
[7] Cannon, J.R., Dampawan, P., Lojanapiwatna, V., Phuriyakorn, B., Sinchai, W., Sitirugsa, P., Suvatabhandhu, K. and Wiriyachitra, P. 1980. A contribution to the Thai phytochemical survey. Journal of the Science Society of Thailand, 6, 46-53.
[8] Changbunjong, T., Wongwit, W., Leemingsawat, S., Tongtokit, Y. and Deesin, V., 2010. Effect of crude extract of Solanum xanthocarpum against snails and mosquito larvae. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 41(2), 320-325.
[9] Yousaf, Z., Wang, Y. and Baydoun, E., 2013. Phtochemistry and pharmacological studies Solanum torvum Swartz. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 3(4), 152-160.
[10] FAOSTAT, 2017. Value of Agricultural Production; Eggplants (aubergines). [online] Available at:
[11] Daunay, M.-C. and Janick, J., 2007. History and iconography of eggplant. Chronica Horticulturae, 47(3), 16-22.
[12] FAOSTAT, 2017. Country Rank in the World, by Commodity; Eggplants (aubergines). [online] Available at:
[13] Taher, D., Solberg, S.Ø., Prohens, J., Chou, Y., Rakha, M. and Wu, T., 2017. World vegetable center eggplant collection: origin, composition, seed dissemination and utilization in breeding. Frontiers in Plant Science, 01484
[14] Azuma, K., Ohyama, A., Ippoushi, K., Ichiyanagi, T., Takeuchi, A., Saito, T. and Fukuoka, H., 2008. Structures and antioxidant activity of anthocyanins in many accessions of eggplant and its related species. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(21), 10154-10159.
[15] Raigón, M.D., Prohens, J., Muñoz-Falcón, J.E. and Nuez, F. 2008. Comparison of eggplant landraces and commercial varieties for fruit content of phenolics, minerals, dry matter and protein. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 21(5), 370-376.
[16] Frary, A., Doganlar, S. and Daunay, M.C., 2007. Eggplant. In: C. Kole, ed. Vegetables SE- 9, Genome Mapping and Molecular Breeding in Plants. Berlin: Springer, pp. 287-313.
[17] Frary, A. and Doganlar, S., 2013. Eggplants. In: B.C. Kang and C. Kole, eds. Genetics, Genomics and Breeding of Peppers and Eggplants. Boca Raton: CRC Press, pp. 116-143.
[18] U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2013. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference [online] Available at: http://www.ars.usda. gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl.
[19] Gürbüz, N., Uluişik, S., Frary, A., Frary, A. and Doğanlar, S., 2018. Health benefits and bioactive compounds of eggplant. Food Chemistry, 268(1), 602-610.
[20] Rodriguez-Jimenez, J.R., Amaya-Guerra, C.A., Baez-Gonzalez, J.G., Aguilera-Gonzalez, C., Urias-Orona, V. and Nino-Medina, G., 2018. Physicochemical, functional, and nutraceutical propertoes of eggplant flours obtained by different drying methods. Molecules, 23(12), 3210,
[21] Kaunda, J.S. and Zhang, Y.J., 2019. The genus Solanum: An ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and biological properties review. Natural Products and Bioprospecting, 9, 77-137.
[22] Plazas, M., Andújar, I., Vilanova, S., Hurtado, M., Gramazio, P., Herraiz, F.J. and Prohens, J., 2013. Breeding for chlorogenic acid content in eggplant: Interest and prospects. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 41(1), 26-35.
[23] AL-Janabi, A.A.H.S. and AL-Rubeey, S.A.H., 2010. Detection of antimicrobial activity of Solanum melongena L. (eggplant) against pathogenic microorganisms. Pharmacognosy Journal, 2(15), 35-39.
[24] Erturk, A.G., Erturk, O., Ayvaz, M.Ç. and Erturk, E.Y., 2018. Screening of phytochemical, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities in extracts of some fruits and vegetables consumed in Turkey. Celal Bayar University Journal of Science, 14(1), 81-92.
[25] Hong, H., Lee, J.H. and Kim, S.K., 2018. Phytochemicals and antioxidant capacity of some tropical edible plants. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 31(10), 1677-1684.
[26] Rochín-Medina, J.J., Sotelo-Castro, J.A., Salazar-Salas, N.Y., López-Valenzuela, J.A. and Ramírez, K., 2019. Antioxidant and anti-Salmonella activities of eggplant peel compounds obtained by solvent-free calcium-based extraction. CYTA-Journal of Food, 17(1), 873-881.
[27] Edmonds, J.M. and Chweya, J.A., 1997. Black Nightshades Solanum nigrum L. and Related Species. Rome: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute.
[28] FAO, 1999. The Vegetable Sector in Thailand. A Review. [online] Available at:
[29] Tangkanakul, P., Trakoontivakorn, G., Auttaviboonkul, P., Niyomvit, B. and Wongkrajang, K., 2006. Antioxidant activity of Northern and Northeastern Thai foods containing indigenous vegetables. Kasetsart Journal (Natural Science), 40(Suppl.), 47-58.
[30] Kasikawattana, C., Ketsakul, S., Pethpun, A., Ampoln, D. and Auvuchanon, A., 2017. Evaluation of 18 pumpkin cultivars in rainy season production. Songklanakarin Journal of Plant Science, 4(1), 2-7.
[31] Kumar, P., Kumar, J., Kumar, R. and Dubey, R.C., 2016. Studies on phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activities of leaves, fruits and stems of Solanum nigrum L. Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research, 6(4), 57-68.
[32] Djaafar, Z. and Ridha, O.M., 2014. Phytochemical study of selected medicinal plant, Solanum nigrum, the Algerian desert. International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 1, 25-30.
[33] Suryawanshi, P. and Vidyasagar, G.M., 2016. Phytochemical screening for secondary metabolites of Opuntia dillenii Haw. Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies, 4(5), 39-46.
[34] Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M.E. and Berset, C., 1995. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 28(1), 25-30.
[35] Hammer, Ø., Harper, D.A.T., and Ryan, P.D., 2001. PAST: Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontolgia Electronica, 4(1), 1-9.
[36] Begum, F., Islam, A.K.M.A., Rasul, M.G., Mian, M.A.K. and Hossain, M.M., 2013. Morphological diversity of eggplant (Solanum melongena) in Bangladeesh. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, 25(1), 45-51.
[37] Khafagi, A.A.F., El-Ghamery, A.A., Ghaly. O.N. and Ragab, O.G., 2018. Fruit and seed morphology of some species of Solanaceae. Taeckholmia, 38, 123-140.
[38] CIE, 1986. CIE Publications Nos. 15.2, Colorimetry. 2nd ed. Vienna: Central Bureau of the CIE.
[39] Gajewski, M. and Arasimowicz, D., 2004. Sensory quality of eggplant fruits (Solanum melongena L.) as affected by cultivar and maturity stage. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 13/54(3), 249-254.
[40] Sękara, A., Cebula, S. and Kunicki, E., 2007. Cultivated eggplants-origin, breeding objectives and genetic resources, a review. Folia Horticulturae, 19(1), 97-114.
[41] Chattopadhyay, A., Seth, T., Dutta, S., Ghosh, P.P., Chattopadhyay, S.B., Majumder, D. and Hazra, P., 2012. Breeding eggplant for higher productivity and bacterial wilt tolerance. International Journal of Vegetable Science, 18(4), 376-392.
[42] Batu, A., 1998. Some factors affecting on determination and measurement of tomato firmness. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 22, 411-418.
[43] Koundinya, A.V.V., Pandit, M.K., Dolui, S., Bhattacharya, A. and Hegde, V., 2019. Multivariate analysis of fruit quality traits in brinjal. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 76(1), 94-103.
[44] Hamouz, K., Pazderui, K., Lachman, J., Orsák, M., Pivec, V., Hejtmánková, K., Tomášek, J. and Cížek, M., 2014. Effect of cultivar, flesh colour, location and year of cultivation on glycoalkaloid content in potato tubers. Plant, Soil and Environment, 60(11), 512-517.
[45] Fidrianny, I., Winarsih, S. and Ruslan, K., 2017. Phytochemical content and antioxidant potential of different organs of eggplant (Solanum melogena L.) grown in West Java-Indonesia. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 10(8), 144-149.
[46] Koomson, D.A., Kwakye, B.D., Darkwah, W.K., Odum, B., Asante, M. and Aidoo, G., 2018. Phytochemical constituents, total saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and vitamin C contents of ethanol extracts of five Solanum torvum fruits. Pharmacognosy Journal, 10(5), 946-950.
[47] Sánchez-Mata, M.-C., Yokoyama, W.-E., Hong, Y.J. and Prohens, J., 2010. α-solasonine and α-solamargine contents of gboma (Solanum macrocarpon L.) and scarlet (Solanum aethipicum L.) eggplants. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58(9), 5502-5508.
[48] Sczkowski, C.P., Kalinowska, M. and Wojciechowski, Z., 1988. The 3-O-glucosylation of steroidal saponins and alkaloids in eggplant (Solanum melongena); evidence for two separate glycosyltransferases. Phytochemistry, 48, 1151-1159.
[49] Atul, T. and Ray, S., 2014. Certain medicinal plants of Solanaceae and their alkaloids screening. International Research Journal of Medical Sciences, 2(1), 4-6.
[50] Buzzini, P., Arapitsas, P., Goretti, M., Branda, E., Turchetti, B., Pinelli, P., Leri, F. and Romani, A. 2008. Antimicrobial and antiviral activity of hydrolysable tannins. Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry, 8(12), 1179-1187.
[51] Orlowski, P., Zmigrodzka, M., Tomaszewska, E., Ranoszek-Soliwoda, K., Czupryn, M., Antos-Bielska, M., Szemraj, J., Celichowski, G., Grobelny, J. and Krzyzowska, M., 2018. Tannic acid-modified silver nanoparticles for wound healing: the importance of size. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 13, 991-1007.
[52] Rao, A.V. and Sung, M.K., 1995. Saponins as anticarcinogens. The Journal of Nutrition, 125(3), 717-724.
[53] Xu, R., Zhao, W., Xu, J., Shao, B. and Qin, G., 1996. Studies on bioactive saponins from Chinese medicinal plants. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 404, 371-382.
[54] Khoo, H.E., Azlan, A., Tang, S.T. and Lim, S.M., 2017. Anthocyanidins and anthocyanins: colored pigments as food, pharmaceutical ingredients, and the potential health benefits. Food and Nutrition Research, 61,
[55] Liu, Y., Tikunov, Y., Schouten, R.E., Marcelis, L.F.M., Visser, R.G.F. and Bovy, A., 2018. Anthocyanin biosynthesis and degradation mechanisms in Solanaceous vegetables: A review. Frontiers in Chemistry,
[56] Martín, J., Kuskoski, E.M., Navas, M.J. and Asuero, A.G., 2017. Antioxidant capacity of anthocyanin pigments. In: J.C. Justino, ed. Flavonoids. Rijeka: Intech, pp. 205-255.
[57] Tateyama, C. and Igarashi, K., 2006. Anthocyanin and chlorogenic acid contents of some selected eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) cultivars, and the radical scavenging activities of their extracts. Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi, 53(4), 218-224.
[58] Passam, H.C. and Karapanos, I.C., 2008. Eggplants, peppers and tomatoes: factors affecting the quality and storage life of fresh and flesh-cut (minimally processed) produce. The European Journal of Plant Science and Biotechnology, 2(1), 156-170.
[59] Do, Q.D., Angkawijaya, A.E., Tran-Nguyen, P.L., Huynh, J.H., Soetaredjo, F.E., Ismadji, S. and Ju, Y.H., 2014. Effect of extraction solvent on total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of Limnophila aromatica. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 22, 296-302.
[60] Somawathi, K.M., Rizliya, V., Wijesinghe, D.G.N.G. and Madhujith, W.M.T., 2014. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of different skin coloured brinjal (Solanum melongena). Tropical Agricultural Research, 26(1), 152-161.
[61] Nookaraju, A., Upadhyaya, C.P., Pandey, S.K., Young, K.E., Hong, S.J., Park, S.K. and Park, S.W., 2010. Molecular approaches for enhancing sweetness in fruits and vegetables. Scientia Horticulturae, 127, 1-15.
[62] Magwaza, L.S. and Opara, U.L., 2015. Analytical methods for determination of sugars and sweetness of horticultural products-a review. Scientia Horticulturae, 184, 179-192.
[63] Hallman, A., 1985. Plants and cardiac glycosides. British Heart Journal, 54, 258-261.
[64] Bartnik, M. and Facey, P.C., 2017. Glycosides. In: S. Badal and R. Delgoda, eds. Pharmacognosy: Fundamentals, Applications and Strategies. San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 101-161.
[65] Rashidi, M., Ranjbar, I., Gholami, M. and Abbassi, S., 2010. Prediction of total soluble solids and firmness of carrot based on carrot water content. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 12(2), 237-240.