Main Article Content
Microalgae contain high levels of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and other bioactive metabolites with direct relevance to aquaculture. This investigation was done to assess the bioactive properties and describe the neutraceutical and pharmacological benefits of a green microalga, Chlorella minutissima (Chm1). The alga has a total phenolic content of 30.94±0.06 mg GAE g-1. Relative antioxidant efficiency showed that C. minutissima exerted potent ABTS scavenging activity and high ability of reducing copper ions in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 values of 48.13 μg GAE ml-1 and 13.90 μg GAE ml-1, respectively. Evaluation of antibacterial activities using microtiter plate dilution assay revealed that C. minutissima showed strong activity against Aeromonas hydrophila with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 125 μg ml-1. The algal extract is also effective against Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Staphylococcus aureus in each case with MIC value of 250 μg ml-1. Also, C. minutissima extract was able to inhibit the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens with MIC value of 500 μg ml-1. Proximate composition of the dried microalga showed that C. minutissima consists of high protein, ash and crude fat content with values of 42.61±0.11%, 17.79 ± 0.04% and 11.70 ± 0.01%, respectively. The results show that C. minutissima is an excellent candidate organism as a potential source of chemical compounds important for feed formulation and disease control in aquaculture.
Keywords: Antibacterial activity; antioxidant activity; bioactive compounds; bacterial fish pathogen; Chlorella; microalgae; proximate analysis
*Corresponding author: Tel.: +6349-536-2884 Fax: +6349-536-2721
Copyright Transfer Statement
The copyright of this article is transferred to Current Applied Science and Technology journal with effect if and when the article is accepted for publication. The copyright transfer covers the exclusive right to reproduce and distribute the article, including reprints, translations, photographic reproductions, electronic form (offline, online) or any other reproductions of similar nature.
The author warrants that this contribution is original and that he/she has full power to make this grant. The author signs for and accepts responsibility for releasing this material on behalf of any and all co-authors.
Here is the link for download: Copyright transfer form.pdf
Falaise, C., François, C., Travers, M.A., Morga B., Haure, J., Tremblay, R., Turcotte, F., Pasetto, P., Gastineau, R., Hardivillier, Y., Liegnel, V. and Mouget, J.L., 2016. Antimicrobial compounds from eukaryotic microalgae against human pathogens and diseases in aquaculture. Marine Drugs, 14(9), 159, https://doi.org/10.3390/md14090159
Charoonnart, P., Purton, S. and Saksmerprome, V., 2018. Applications of microalgal biotechnology for disease control in aquaculture. Biology, 7(2), 24, https://doi.org/10.3390/biology7020024
Arguelles, E.D.L.R., Laurena, A.C., Martinez-Goss, M.R. and Monsalud, R.G., 2017. Antibacterial activity, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of a green microalga Desmodesmus sp. (U-AU2) from Los Baños, Laguna (Philippines). Journal of Nature Studies, 16(2), 1-13.
de Morais, M.G., Vaz, B.S., de Morais, E.G. and Costa, J.A.V., 2015. Biologically Active Metabolites Synthesized by Microalgae. BioMed Research International, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/835761
Arguelles, E.D.L.R., 2018. Proximate analysis, antibacterial activity, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of a green microalga Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turpin) Brébisson. Asian Journal of Microbiology Biotechnology and Environmental Science, 20(1), 150-158.
Kokou, F., Makridis, P., Kentouri, M. and Divanach, P., 2012. Antibacterial activity in microalgae cultures. Aquaculture Research, 43, 1520-1527.
Olasehinde, T.A., Odjadjare, E.C., Mabinya, L.V., Olaniran A.O. and Okoh, A.O., 2019. Chlorella sorokiniana and Chlorella minutissima exhibit antioxidant potentials, inhibit cholinesterases and modulate disaggregation of β-amyloid fibrils. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, 40, 1-9.
Tejano, L.A., Peralta, J.P., Yap, E.E.S., Panjaitan, F.J.A. and Chang, Y-W., 2019. Prediction of bioactive peptides from Chlorella sorokiniana proteins using proteomic techniques in combination with bioinformatics analyses. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 20, 1786-1801.
AOAC, 2011. Official Methods of Analysis International. 18th ed. Washington DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
Nuñez Selles, A., Castro, H.T.V., Aguero, J.A., Gonzalez, J.G., Naddeo, F., De Simone, F. and Pastrelli, L., 2002. Isolation and quantitative analysis of phenolic antioxidants, free sugars and polyols from mango (Mangifera indica L.) stem bark aqueous decoction used in Cuba as a nutritional supplement. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50, 762-766.
Re, R., Pellegrine, N., Proteggente, A., Pannala, A., Yang, M. and Rice-Evans, C., 1999. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 26, 1231-1237.
Alpinar, K., Özyurek, M., Kolak, U., Guclu, K., Aras, Ç., Altun, M., Celik, S.E., Berker, K.I., Bektasoglu, B. and Ampal, R., 2009. Antioxidant capacities of some food plants wildly grown in Ayvalik of Turkey. Food Science and Technology Research, 15(1), 59-64.
Arguelles, E.D.L.R., Monsalud, R.G. and Sapin, A.B., 2019. Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Sargassum vulgare C. Agardh from Lobo, Batangas, Philippines. Journal of the International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences (ISSAAS), 25(1), 112-122.
Arguelles, E.D.L.R., Laurena, A.C., Monsalud, R.G. and Martinez-Goss, M.R., 2019. High-lipid and protein-producing epilithic microalga, Desmodesmus sp. (U-AU2): A promising alternative feedstock for biodiesel and animal feed production. Philippine Journal of Crop Science, 44(2), 13-23.
Becker, E.W., 2007. Micro-algae as a source of protein. Biotechnology Advances, 25, 207-210.
Arguelles, E.D.L.R., Laurena, A.C., Monsalud, R.G. and Martinez-Goss, M.R., 2018. Fatty acid profile and fuel-derived physico-chemical properties of biodiesel obtained from an indigenous green microalga, Desmodesmus sp. (I-AU1), as potential source of renewable lipid and high quality biodiesel. Journal of Applied Phycology, 30, 411-419.
Arguelles, E.D.L.R. and Martinez-Goss, M.R., 2020. Lipid accumulation and profiling in microalgae Chlorolobion sp. (BIOTECH 4031) and Chlorella sp. (BIOTECH 4026) during nitrogen starvation for biodiesel production. Journal of Applied Phycology, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-020-02126-z
Radhakrishnan, S., Bhavan, P.S., Seenivasan, C. and Muralisankar, T., 2017. Nutritional profile of Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris and Azolla pinnata to novel protein source for aquaculture feed formulation. Austin Journal of Aquaculture and Marine Biology, 2(1), 1005.
Etiosa, O.R., Chika, N.B. and Benedicta, A., 2017. Mineral and proximate composition of soya bean. Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences. 4(3), 1-6.
Arguelles, E.D.L.R. and Sapin, A.B. 2020. Bioactive properties of Sargassum siliquosum J. Agardh (Fucales, Ochrophyta) and its potential as source of skin-lightening active ingredient for cosmetic application. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 10(7), 51-58.
Abd El-Aty, A.M., Mohamed, A.A. and Samhan, F.A., 2014. In vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of two fresh water Cyanobacterial species, Oscillatoria agardhii and Anabaena sphaerica. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 4(7), 69-75.
Manivannan, K., Anantharaman, P. and Balasubramanian, T., 2012. Evaluation of antioxidant properties of marine microalga Chlorella marina (Butcher, 1952). Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 2(1), S342-S346.
Simić, S., Kosanić, M. and Ranković, B., 2012. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of green microalgae Trentepohlia umbrina. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 40(2), 86-91.
Apak, R., Güclü, K., Demirata, B., Özyürek, Z., Çelik, S.E., Bektasoglu, B., Berker, K.I. and Özyurt, D., 2007. Comparative evaluation of various total antioxidant capacity assays applied to phenolic compounds with the CUPRAC assay. Molecules, 12, 1496-1547.
Salvesen, I., Skjermo, J. and Vadstein, O., 1999. Growth of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) during first feeding in relation to the proportion of r/K strategists in the bacterial community of the rearing water. Aquaculture, 175, 337-350.
Aklakur, M., 2019. Natural antioxidants from sea: a potential industrial perspective in aquafeed formulation. Reviews in Aquaculture, 10(2), 385-389.
Silveira Júnior, A.M., Faustino, S.M.M. and Cunha, A.C., 2019. Bioprospection of biocompounds and dietary supplements of microalgae with immunostimulating activity: a comprehensive review. Peer Journal 7, e7685, https//doi.org//10.7717/peerj.7685
Desbois, A.P. and Smith, V.J., 2010. Antibacterial free fatty acids: activities, mechanisms of action and biotechnological potential. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 85, 1629-1642.
Shannon, E. and Abu-Ghannam, N., 2016. Antibacterial derivatives of marine algae: An overview of pharmacological mechanisms and applications. Marine Drugs, 14(4), 81, https://doi.org/10.3390/md14040081
Seenivasan, R., Indu, H., Archana, G. and Geetha, S., 2010. The antibacterial activity of some marine algae from south east coast of India. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science, 9(5), 480-489.
Uma, R., Sivasubramanian, V. and Niranjali Devaraj, S., 2011. Preliminary phycochemical analysis and in vitro antibacterial screening of green micro algae, Desmococcus olivaceous, Chlorococcum humicola and Chlorella vulgaris. Journal of Algal Biomass Utilization, 2, 74-81.