Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Associated with Terminalia catappa Fruit Consumption Obtained from an Automobile Workshop Cluster in Nsukka, Nigeria

Main Article Content

Ekene John Nweze
Chibuike Samuel Ubani
Emmanuel Sunday Okeke*
Timothy Prince Chidike Ezeorba
Amarachuwku Vivian Arazu

Abstract

The indiscriminate disposal of wastes generated from automobile workshops has contributed immensely to the accumulation of heavy metals within the immediate environment. Food security and human health are threatened as edible plants and fruits take up these metals. This study investigated the health risk assessment associated with Terminalia catappa fruit consumption. Soil and Terminalia catappa plant parts (roots, stems, shoots and fruit) from Nsukka automobile workshop were analyzed for As, Cr, Ni, Cu. Pb, Zn, Cd, and Fe. This was done using an atomic absorption spectrometer after acid digestion. The average concentration of As, Cr, Ni, Cu. Pb, Zn, Cd, and Fe in the fruit were 1.09±0.49, 1.43±0.74, 1.08±0.45, 19.31±6.32, 4.21±1.73, 11.23±1.45, 1.87±0.17 and 28.35±4.22 mg/kg, respectively. Arsenic and cadmium had a relatively higher BCF (As - 0.66, Cd - 1.15), TF (As - 0.92 and Cd - 0.83) and BAF (As - 0.47 and Cd - 0.45) when compared to other investigated metals. The HQ obtained for Cd was the highest (0.895), while the THI was 1.869. The heavy metal concentration in fruit exceeded the acceptable permissible limits stipulated by USEPA, WHO and FAO. From the risk assessment, it was concluded that cadmium was the major contributing factor associated with developing health hazards and carcinogenic risk. Therefore, it is fitting to notify the target population who consume tropical almonds from Nsukka automobile workshop how unsafe eating the fruit can be.


Keywords: automobile workshop; heavy metals; risk assessments; Terminalia catappa; carcinogenic risks


*Corresponding author: Tel.: +2348035277554


                                             E-mail: emmanuel.okeke@unn.edu.ng,


 


 

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Section
Research Articles

References

[1] Duffus, J.H., 2002. Heavy metals. A meaningless term? International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 74, 793-807.
[2] Koller, M. and Saleh, H.M., 2018. Introductory chapter: Introducing heavy metals. In: H. Saleh and R. Aglan, eds. Heavy Metals. London: Intech Open, pp. 1-11.
[3] Huang, Z., Pan, X.D., Wu, P.G., Han, J.L. and Chen, Q., 2014 Heavy metals in vegetables and the health risk to population in Zhejiang, China. Food Control, 36, 248-252.
[4] Roba. C., Roşu, C., Piştea, I., Ozunu, A. and Baciu, C., 2016. Heavy metal content in vegetables and fruits cultivated in Baia Mare mining area (Romania) and health risk assessment. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23, 6062-6073.
[5] Rahimzadeh, M. and Rastegar, S., 2017. Heavy metals residue in cultivated mango samples from Iran. Journal of Food Quality and Hazards Control, 4, 29-31.
[6] Asuquo, F.E. and Bate, G.B., 2020. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) found in the vicinity of gold mining sites of Zamfara State, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, 12(1), 45-58.
[7] Singh, S., Zacharias, M., Kalpana, S. and Mishra, S., 2012. Heavy metals accumulation and distribution pattern in different vegetable crops. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, 4(10),170-177.
[8] Ogendi, G.M., Maina, G.M., Mbuthia, J.W., Koech, H.K., Ratemo, C.M. and Koskey, J.C., 2014. Heavy metal concentrations in water, sediments and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fish species from lake Naivasha, Kenya. Research Journal of Environmental Earth Science, 6(8), 416-423.
[9] Ekere, N.R., Ugbor, M.C.J., Ihedioha, J.N., Ukwueze, N.N. and Abugu, H.O., 2020. Ecological and potential health risk assessment of heavy metals in soils and food crops grown in abandoned urban open waste dumpsite. Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, 18(2), 711-721.
[10] United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), 2017. Human Health Risk Assessment Model Ecological Risk Assessment. [online] Available at: https://www.epa.gov/ risk/human-health-riskassessment#.
[11] Ubani. C.S., Nwachukwu, J.N., Osuji, C.A. and Nweze, E.J., 2018. Human health probabilistic risk assessment of Achatina achatina (African giant snail) consumption as models of mining Activities. International Journal of Science and Engineering Research, 9(6), 1124-1133.
[12] Kalpana, P., Rakesh, N. and Nageswara, R.L., 2010. Biosorption of lead ions from aqueous solution by Terminalia catappa: Equilibrium and kinetic studies. Nature Environment and Pollution Technology, 9(2), 335-343.
[13] Hevira, L., Munaf, E. and Zein, R., 2015. The use of Terminalia catappa L. fruit shell as biosorbent for the removal of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) ion in liquid waste. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 7(10), 79-89.
[14] Protano, G., Riccobono, F. and Sabatini, G., 2005. Does salt intrusion constitute a mercury contamination risk for coastal freshwater aquifers? Environmental Pollution, 110, 451-458.
[15] AOAC, 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th ed. Washington DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
[16] Thompson, M., Ellison, S.L., Fajgelj, A., Willetts, P. and Wood, R., 1997. Harmonised guidelines for the use of recovery information in analytical measurement (technical report). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 71(2), 227-248.
[17] Burns, D.T., Danzer, K. and Townshend, A., 2020. Use of the term “recovery” and “apparent recovery” in analytical procedures (IUPAC recommendations 2002). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 74(11), 2201-2205.
[18] World Health Organization, 1996. Permissible Limit of heavy metals in soils and plants. International Programme on Chemical Safety. Environmental Health Criteria 165. Geneva: World Health Organization.
[19] World Health Organization, 2004. Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Workshop on Fruits and Vegetables for Health. Kobe: World Health Organization.
[20] Malik, R.N., Husain, S.Z. and Nazir, I., 2010. Heavy metal contamination and accumulation in soil and wild plant species from industrial area of Islamabad, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 42(1), 291-301.
[21] Olowoyo, J.O., Van, Heerden, E., Fischer, J.L. and Baker, C., 2010. Trace metals in soil and leaves of Jacaranda mimosifolia in Tshwane area, South Africa. Atmospheric Environment, 44(20),1826-1830.
[22] USEPA, 2011. USEPA Regional Screening Level (RSL) Summary Table. [online] Available at: http://www.epa.gov/regshwmd/ris k/human/Index.htm.
[23] Chary, N.S., Kamala, C.T. and Ras, D.S.S., 2008. Assessing risk of heavy metals from consuming food grown on sewage irrigated soil and food chain transfer. Ecotoxicology and Environment Safety, 69, 513-524.
[24] Onuoha, S.C., Anelo, P.C. and Nkpaa, K.W., 2016. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in snail (Archachatina marginata) from four contaminated regions in Rivers State, Nigeria. Chemical Science International Journal, 11(2), 1-8.
[25] Reference Values for Trace Elements in Soil, 1997. Monitorul Oficial al Romaniei, No. 303 bis/ 6 XII 1997/ OM 756/1997 (in Romanian).
[26] Cao, S., Duan, X., Zhao, X., Wang, B., Ma, J., Fan, D., Sun, C., He, B., Wei, F. and Jiang, G., 2015. Health risk assessment of various metal(loid)s via multiple exposure pathways on children living near a typical lead-acid battery plant. China. Environmental Pollution, 200, 16-23.
[27] Zeng, F., Wei, W., Li, M., Huang, R., Yang, F. and Duan, Y., 2015. Heavy metal contamination in rice-producing soils of Hunan province, China and potential health risks. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12, 15584-15593.
[28] Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SECTAC), 2004. Technical Issue Paper. Environmental Risk Assessment of Chemicals. [online] Available at: https://c.ymcdn. com/sites/www.setac.org/resource/resmgr/publications_and_resources/setac_tip_era.pdf.
[29] Ameh, A.O., Mohammed-Dabo, I.A., Ibrahim, S., Ameh, J.B. and Odengle, J.O., 2011. Heavy metal contamination of soil in mechanic workshops. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 5(5), 2103-2113.
[30] Clausen, J., Rastogi, S.C., 1977. Heavy metal pollutions among autoworkers II. Cadmium, chromim, copper, manganese and nickel. British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 34, 216-220.
[31] Adewole, M.B. and Uchegbu, L.U., 2010. Properties of soils and plants uptake within the vicinity of selected automobile workshops in Ile-Ife Southwestern, Nigeria. Ethiopian Journal Environmental Studies Management, 3(3), https://doi.org/10.4314/ejesm.v3i3.63962
[32] Abidemi, O.O., 2011. Levels of Pb, Fe, Cd and Co in soils of automobile workshop in Osun State, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management, 15(2), 279-282.
[33] Frossard, E., Bucher, M., Machler, F., Mozafar, A. and Hurrell, R. 2000. Potential for increasing the content and bioavailability of Fe, Zn and Ca in plants for human nutrition. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 80, 861-879.
[34] Sulaiman, F.R. and Hamzah, H.A., 2018. Heavy metals accumulation in suburban roadside plants of a tropical area (Jengka, Malaysia). Ecological Processes, 7, 28, https://doi.org/10. 1186/s13717 -018-0139-3.
[35] Rathor, R., 2010. Recent advances in herbal drug research and therapy. In: R. Arunabha and G. Kavita, eds. Arsenic Toxicity: Biochemical Effects, Mechanism of Action and Strategies for the Prevention and Treatment by Chelating Agents and Herbal Extracts. New-Delhi: I.K. International Publishing House, p. 260.
[36] Yuka, Y., Faridi, Z., Ma, Y., Ali, A., Northrup, V., Njike, V.Y., Liberty, L., and Katz, D.L.A., 2010. Pilot study of chromium picolinate for weight loss. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 16(3), 291-299.
[37] Basketter, D., Horev, L., Slodovnik, D., Merimes, S., Trattner, A. and Ingber, A., 2000. Investigation of the threshold for allergic reactivity to chromium. Contact Dermatitis, 44(2), 70-74.
[38] Kumar, S. and Trivedi, A.V., 2016. A review on role of nickel in the biological system. International Journal of Current Microbiology Applied Sciences, 5(3), 719-727.
[39] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2018. Case Studies in Environmental Medicine. [Online] Available at: https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/csem/csem.asp?csem=34&po =10.
[40] Kleiner, D.E., 2018. Drugs and toxins. In: A. Burt, L. Ferrell and S. Hübscher, S., eds. MacSween's Pathology of the Liver. 7th ed. London: Elsevier, pp. 673-779.
[41] Wang, W.X., 2016. Bioaccumulation and biomonitoring. In: J. Blasco, P. Chapman, O. Campana, M. Hampel, Eds. Marine Ecotoxicology: Current Knowledge and Future Issues. London: Elsevier, pp. 99-119.
[42] Ali, H., Khan, E. and Sajad, M.A., 2013. Phytoremediation of heavy metals—concepts and applications. Chemosphere, 91(7), 869-881.
[43] Wang, M., Xu, Y., Pan, S., Zhang, J., Zhong, A., Song, H. and Ling, W., 2011. Long-term heavy metal pollution and mortality in a Chinese population: An ecologic study. Biological Trace Element Research, 142, 362-379.
[44] Meseret, M., Ketema, G. and Kassahun, H., 2020. Health risk assessment and determination of some heavy metals in commonly consumed traditional herbal preparations in Northeast Ethiopia. Journal of Chemistry, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8883837.