Allelopathic Potential of Subfractions from Aqueous Extract of Spirulina Platensis and Denatured C-phycocyanin

Main Article Content

Patchanee Charoenying *
Chamroon Laosinwattana
Nawasit Chotsaeng


In this laboratory bioassay, crude aqueous extract of Spirulina platensis (Nordst) Geitl. was extracted with 90% aqueous ethanol and 80% aqueous ethanol to achieve three subfractions, green powder (F1), pale-green powder (F2) and deep-blue powder (F3). Each of these subfractions was evaluated for allelopathic activity on Chinese amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.). The plant seeds were germinated in vials with three subfractions (250-2000 mg/l concentrations) and distilled water was used as a negative control. The results indicated that subfraction F3 had the highest inhibitory effect on both of the tested plants. All subfractions had an absorbance ratio (A620/A280) lower than the original aqueous extract, suggesting that a denaturation event of the C-phycocyanin (C-PC) component had occurred during the extraction process. After heating a commercial C-PC solution at 90oC for 3 h, the absorbance ratio changed to 0.46, and likewise allelopathic assay revealed that the decolorized C-PC solution retained its allelopathic potential on the tested plants. To confirm these findings, S. platensis powder was extracted with distilled water at 90oC for 3 h and tested for its allelopathic potential using standard Petri dish assay at concentrations of 0.625-5%. The results showed that the hot aqueous extract had an absorbance ratio of 0.38, and its allelopathic activities were similar to those of the aqueous extract. Furthermore, it was found that although C-PC in aqueous extractions denatured, it still retained its allelopathic potential on the tested plants.

Keywords: allelopathic potential; Spirulina platensis; denatured C-phycocyanin; aqueous extract

*Corresponding author: Tel.: (+66)-2329-8400 (ext. 6241)



Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Research Articles


[1] Putnam, A.R. and Tang, C.S., 1986. Allelopathy: State of the science. In: A.R. Putnam and C.S. Tang, eds. The Science of Allelopathy. New York: Wiley-Interscience Publishers, pp. 1-19.
[2] Rice, E.L., 1984. Allelopathy. 2nd ed. New York: Academic Publishers.
[3] Kohli, R.K., Batish, D. and Singh, H.P., 1997. Allelopathy and its implication in agroecosystems. Journal of Crop Production, 1(1), 169-202.
[4] Singh, H.P., Batish D.R. and Kohli, R.K., 2001. Allelopathy in agroecosystems: an overview. Journal of Crop Production, 4(2), 1-41.
[5] Doan, N.T., Rickards, R.W., Rothschild, J.M. and Smith, G.D., 2000. Allelopathic actions of the alkaloid 12-epi-hapalindole E isonitrile and calothrixin A from cyanobacteria of the genera Fischerella and Calothrix. Journal of Applied Phycology, 12(3), 409-16.
[6] Hirata, K., Yoshitomi, S., Dwi, S., Iwabe, O., Mahakhant, A., Polchai, J. and Miyamoto, K., 2003. Bioactivities of nostocine A produced by a freshwater cyanobacterium Nostoc spongiaeforme TISTR 8619. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 95(5), 512-517.
[7] Singh, D.P., Tyagi, M.B., Kumar, A., Thakur, J.K. and Kumar, A., 2001. Antialgal activity of a hepatotoxin-producing cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 17(1), 15-22.
[8] Jüttner, F., Todorova, A.K., Walch, N. and Philipsborn, W.V., 2001. Nostocyclamide M: a cyanobacterial cyclic peptide with allelopathic activity from Nostoc 31. Phytochemistry, 57(4), 613-619.
[9] Benedetti, S., Benvenuti, F., Pagliarani, S., Francogli, S., Scoglio, S. and Canestrari, F., 2004. Antioxidant properties of a novel phycocyanin extract from the blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Life Sciences, 75(19), 2353-2362.
[10] Pardhasaradhi, B.V.V., Ali, A.M., Kumari, A.L., Reddanna, P. and Khar, A., 2003. Phycocyanin-mediated apoptosis in AK-5 tumor cells involves down-regulation of Bcl-2 and generation of ROS. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, 2(11), 1165-1170.
[11] Romay, C., Gonzalez, R., Ledon, N., Remirez, D. and Rimbau, V., 2003. C-Phycocyanin: a biliprotein with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. Current Protein and Peptide Science, 4(3), 207-216.
[12] Charoenying, P., Chotsaeng, P. and Laosinwattana, C., 2010. Effects of Spirulina platensis and C-phycocyanin on seed germination and seedling growth of two monocot and dicot plants. Allelopath Journal, 25(2), 453-464.
[13] Zarrouk, C., 1966. Contribution á l’étude d’une cyanobacterie. Influence de divers facteursphysiques et chimiques sur la croissancenet la photosynthése de Spirulina maxima (Setch et Gardner) Geitler. Ph.D. University of Paris.
[14] Noguchi, Y., Ishii, A., Matsushima, A., Haishi, D., Yasumuro, K., Moriguchi, T., Wada, T., Kodera, Y., Hiroto, M., Nishimura, H., Sekine, M. and Inada, Y., 1999. Isolation of biopterin--glucoside from Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis and its physiologic function. Marine Biotechnology, 1(2), 207-210.
[15] Rito-Palomares, M., Nunez, L. and Amador, D., 2001. Practical application of aqueous two-phase systems for the development of a prototype process for C-phycocyanin recovery from Spirulina maxima. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 76(12), 1273-1280.
[16] Bennett, A. and Bogorad, L., 1973. Complementary chromatic adaptation in a filamentous blue-green algae. The Journal of Cell Biology, 58(2), 419-435.
[17] MacColl, R. and Guard-Friar, D., 1987. Phycobiliproteins. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
[18] MacColl, R., Kapoor, S., Montellese, D.R., Kukadia, S. and Eisele, L.E., 1996. Bilin chromophores as reporters of unique protein conformations of phycocyanin 645. Biochemistry, 35(48), 15436-15439.
[19] Sarada, R., Pillai, M.G. and Ravishankar, G.A., 1999. Phycocyanin from Spirulina sp. influence of processing of biomass on phycocyanin yield, analysis of efficacy of extraction methods and stability studies on phycocyanin. Process Biochemistry, 34(8), 795-801.
[20] Pasco, D.S., Pugh, N.D., Elsohly, M., Ross, S. and Elsohly, N.M., 2007. Potent Immunostimulants from Microalgae. U.S. Pat. 7,205,284 B2.
[21] Edwards, M.R., MacColl, R. and Eisele, L.E., 1996. Some physical properties of an unusual C-phycocyanin isolated from a photosynthetic thermophile. Biochimica et Biophyssica Acta (BBA)-Bioenergetics, 1276(1), 64-70.
[22] Antelo, F.S., Costa, J.A.V. and Kalil, S.J., 2008. Thermal degradation kinetics of the phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 41(1), 43-47.
[23] Zhou, Z-P., Liu, L-N., Chen, X-L., Wang, J-X., Chen, M., Zhang, Y-Z. and Zhou, B-C., 2005. Factors that effect antioxidant activity of C-phycocyanins from Spirulina platensis. Journal of Food Biochemistry, 29(3), 313-322.
[24] Han, B-H., Pyo, M-K. and Yang, S.J., 2003. Denatured Spirulina and Manufacturing Method Thereof. International Patent, WO/2003/080811.
[25] O’Carra, P., Murphy, R.F. and Killilea, S.D., 1980. The native forms of the phycobilin chromophores of algal biliproteins. A clarification. The Biochemical Journal, 187(2), 303-309.
[26] Macias, F.A., Marin, D., Oliveros-Bastidas, A., Varela, R.M., Simonent, A.M., Carrera, C. and Molinillo, J.M., 2003. Allelopathy as a new strategy for sustainable ecosystems development. Biological Science in Space, 17(1), 18-23.
[27] Macias, F.A., Oliveros-Bastidas, A., Marin, D., Castellano, D., Simonet, A.M., Simonent, A.M. and Molinillo, J.M., 2005. Degradation studies on benzoxazinoids. Soil degradation dynamics of (2R)-2-O--D-glucopyranosyl-4-hydroxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIBOA-Glc) and its degradation products, phytotoxic allelochemicals from Gramineae. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53(3), 554-561.
[28] Gagliardo, R.W. and Chilton, W.S., 1992. Soil transformation of 2(2H)-benzoxazolone of rye into phototoxic 2-amino-3H-phenoxazin-3-one. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 18(10), 1683-1691.
[29] Niemeyer, H.M., 1988. Hydroxamic acids (4-Hydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-ones), defence chemicals in the gramineae. Phytochemistry, 27(11), 3349-3358.
[30] Yue, Q., Bacon, C.W. and Richardson, M.D., 1998. Biotransformation of 2-benzoxazolinone and 6-methoxy-benzoxazolinone by Fusarium moniliforme. Phytochemistry, 48(3), 451-454.
[31] Zikmund Ova, M., Dandrarov, K., Hesse, M. and Werner, C., 2002. Hydroxylated 2-amino-3H-phenoxazin-3-one derivatives as products of 2-hydroxy-l,4-benzoxazin-3-one (HBOA) biotransformation by Chaetosphaeria sp., an endophytic fungus from Aphelandra tetragona. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, 57c(7-8), 660-665.
[32] Macias, F.A., Oliveros-Bastidas, A., Martin, D., Castellano, D., Simonet, A.M. and Molinillo, J.M.G, 2004. Degradation studies on benzoxazinoids. Soil degradation dymanics of 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIMBOA) and its degradation products, phytotoxic allelochemicals from Gramineae. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52(21), 6402-6413.
[33] Understrup, A.G., Ravnskov, S., Hansen, H.C.B. and Fomsgaard, I.S., 2005. Biotransformation of 2-benzoxaziniods to 2-amino-(3H)-phenoxazin-3-one and 2-acetylamino-(3H)-phenoxazine-3-one in soil. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 31(5), 1205-1222.