Production of Bacterial Cellulose by Komagataeibacter xylinus InaCC B404 using Different Carbon Sources

Main Article Content

Toga Pangihotan Napitupulu*
Atit Kanti
Masrukhin
Tri Ratna Sulistiyani
Dede Heri Yuli Yanto
I Made Sudiana

Abstract

Recently, microorganism-based hydrogel has been attracting attention for its applications in the revegetation of marginal land and in crop production on dry land. Komagataeibacter xylinus is a bacterium that can biosynthesize bacterial cellulose, the material for microorganism-based hydrogel. Nonetheless, various factors influence the production of bacterial cellulose by K. xylinus, and one of them is the substrate nutrient used. Therefore, we investigate various types of carbon sources for bacterial cellulose synthesis by our strain collection K. xylinus InaCC B404. Five simple sugars were selected as the main carbon source, namely glucose, lactose, mannitol, xylose, and sucrose. The results showed that the type of carbon source affected bacterial cellulose production yield. Lactose was the carbon source that produced the highest yield of bacterial cellulose (8.7 g/l). Moreover, sugar consumption by the isolate was also the lowest in the lactose broth (25% w/w). However, the swelling capacity of dried natural bacterial cellulose produced was relatively similar for all carbon sources, and it was between 2.5-3.1 times per gram. Physical observation based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs showed that the appearances of bacterial cellulose derived from lactose and glucose were more rugged than other types of bacterial cellulose. On the other hand, chemical structure analyses using Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed that the chemical composition of bacterial cellulose was relatively similar for all carbon sources. This was revealed by the presence of the characteristic bands of cellulose. This study points to the value of the use of lactose as a carbon source in the production of bacterial cellulose as a hydrogel for further application.


Keywords: Komagataeibacter xylinus; bacterial cellulose; carbon source; lactose


*Corresponding author: Tel.: (+62) 2187907604 Fax: (+62) 2187907612


                                             E-mail: toga001@brin.go.id

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Section
Research Articles

References

Tomášková, I., Svatoš, M., Macků, J., Vanická, H., Resnerová, K., Čepl, J., Holuša, J., Hosseini, S.M. and Dohrenbusch, A., 2020. Effect of different soil treatments with hydrogel on the performance of drought-sensitive and tolerant tree species in a semi-arid region. Forests, 11(2), https://doi.org/10.3390/f11020211.

Mazloom, N., Khorassani, R., Zohury, G.H., Emami, H. and Whalen, J., 2020. Lignin-based hydrogel alleviates drought stress in maize. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 175, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2020.104055.

Jamnická, G., Ditmarová, Ľ., Kurjak, D., Kmeť, J., Pšidová, E., Macková, M., Gömöry, D. and Střelcová, K., 2013. The soil hydrogel improved photosynthetic performance of beech seedlings treated under drought. Plant, Soil and Environment, 59(10), 446-451.

Wei, J., Yang, H., Cao, H. and Tan, T., 2016. Using polyaspartic acid hydro-gel as water retaining agent and its effect on plants under drought stress. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 23(5), 654-659.

Li, Y., Huang, G., Zhang, X., Li, B., Chen, Y., Lu, T., Lu, T.J. and Xu, F., 2013. Magnetic hydrogels and their potential biomedical applications. Advanced Functional Materials, 23(6), 660-672.

Klein, M. and Poverenov, E., 2020. Natural biopolymer-based hydrogels for use in food and agriculture. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 100(6), 2337-2347.

Ross, P., Mayer, R. and Benziman, M., 1991. Cellulose biosynthesis and function in bacteria. Microbiological Reviews, 55(1), 35-58.

Lustri, W.R., Barud, H.G.O., Barud, H.S., Peres, M.F.S., Gutierrez, J., Tercjak, A., Junior, O.B.O. and Ribeiro, S.J.L., 2015. Microbial cellulose—biosynthesis mechanisms and medical applications. In: M. Poletto and H.L.O. Junior, eds. Cellulose-Fundamental Aspects and Current Trends. London, IntechOpen, pp. 133-157.

Basu, A., Das, D., Bapat, P., Wangikar, P.P. and Phale, P.S., 2009. Sequential utilization of substrates by Pseudomonas putida CSV86: signatures of intermediate metabolites and online measurements. Microbiological Research, 164(4), 429-437.

Goetghebuer, L., Servais, P. and George, I.F., 2017. Carbon utilization profiles of river bacterial strains facing sole carbon sources suggest metabolic interactions. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 364(10), https://doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fnx098.

Yamada, Y., Yukphan, P., Vu, H.T.L., Muramatsu, Y., Ochaikul, D., Tanasupawat, S. and Nakagawa, Y., 2012. Description of Komagataeibacter gen. nov., with proposals of new combinations (Acetobacteraceae). The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology, 58(5), 397-404.

Hestrin, S. and Schramm, M.J.B.J., 1954. Synthesis of cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum. 2. Preparation of freeze-dried cells capable of polymerizing glucose to cellulose. Biochemical Journal, 58(2), 345.

Komagata K., Iino T. and Yamada Y., 2014. The family Acetobacteraceae. In: E. Rosenberg, E.F. DeLong, S. Lory, E. Stackebrandt and F. Thompson, eds. The Prokaryotes. Berlin: Springer.

Sarkono, S. and Si, M., 2015. Kajian Bakteri Asam Asetat Penghasil Selulosa Endogenik Buah Masak dan Eksogenik Inokulum Nata. Ph.D. Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Parte, A.C., 2018. LPSN–List of prokaryotic names with standing in nomenclature (bacterio.net), 20 years on. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 68(6), 1825-1829.

Ramana, K.V., Tomar, A. and Singh, L., 2000. Effect of various carbon and nitrogen sources on cellulose synthesis by Acetobacter xylinum. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 16(3), 245-248.

Singhsa, P., Narain, R. and Manuspiya, H., 2018. Physical structure variations of bacterial cellulose produced by different Komagataeibacter xylinus strains and carbon sources in static and agitated conditions. Cellulose, 25(3), 1571-1581.

Gullo, M., China, S.L., Petroni, G., Gregorio, S.D. and Giudici, P., 2019. Exploring K2G30 genome: a high bacterial cellulose producing strain in glucose and mannitol based media. Frontiers in Microbiology, 10, https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00058.

Oikawa, T., Morino, T. and Ameyama, M., 1995. Production of cellulose from D-arabitol by Acetobacter xylinum KU-1. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 59(8), 1564-1565.

Moing, A., 2000. Sugar alcohols as carbohydrate reserves in some higher plants. In: A.K. Gupta and N. Kaur, eds. Developments in Crop Science. Vol. 26. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 337-358.

Jonas, R. and Farah, L.F., 1998. Production and application of microbial cellulose. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 59(1-3), 101-106.

Sun, B., Zi, Q., Chen, C., Zhang, H., Gu, Y., Liang, G. and Sun, D., 2018. Study of specific metabolic pattern of Acetobacter xylinum NUST4.2 and bacterial cellulose production improvement. Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, 52(9-10), 795-801.

Sukara, E. and Meliawati, R., 2016. Potential values of bacterial cellulose for industrial applications. Jurnal Selulosa, 4(01), 7-16.

Huang, H.C., Chen, L.C., Lin, S.B., Hsu, C.P. and Chen, H.H., 2010. In situ modification of bacterial cellulose network structure by adding interfering substances during fermentation. Bioresource Technology, 101(15), 6084-6091.

Perotti, G.F., Barud, H.S., Messaddeq, Y., Ribeiro, S.J. and Constantino, V.R., 2011. Bacterial cellulose–laponite clay nanocomposites. Polymer, 52(1), 157-163.

Buyanov, A.L., Gofman, I.V., Revel’skaya, L.G., Khripunov, A.K. and Tkachenko, A.A., 2010. Anisotropic swelling and mechanical behavior of composite bacterial cellulose–poly (acrylamide or acrylamide–sodium acrylate) hydrogels. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 3(1), 102-111.

Sakaguchi, M., Ohura, T., Iwata, T., Takahashi, S., Akai, S., Kan, T., Murai, H., Fujiwara, M., Watanabe, O. and Narita, M., 2010. Diblock copolymer of bacterial cellulose and poly (methyl methacrylate) initiated by chain-end-type radicals produced by mechanical scission of glycosidic linkages of bacterial cellulose. Biomacromolecules, 11(11), 3059-3066.

Molina-Ramírez, C., Castro, M., Osorio, M., Torres-Taborda, M., Gómez, B., Zuluaga, R., Gómez, C., Gañán, P., Rojas, O.J. and Castro, C., 2017. Effect of different carbon sources on bacterial nanocellulose production and structure using the low pH resistant strain Komagataeibacter medellinensis. Materials, 10(6), https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10060639.

Kim, U.J., Eom, S.H. and Wada, M., 2010. Thermal decomposition of native cellulose: influence on crystallite size. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 95(5), 778-781.

Ashrafi, Z., Lucia, L. and Krause, W., 2019. Bioengineering tunable porosity in bacterial nanocellulose matrices. Soft Matter, 15(45), 9359-9367.

Wang, S.S., Han, Y.H., Ye, Y.X., Shi, X.X., Xiang, P., Chen, D.L. and Li, M., 2017. Physicochemical characterization of high-quality bacterial cellulose produced by Komagataeibacter sp. strain W1 and identification of the associated genes in bacterial cellulose production. RSC Advances, 7(71), 45145-45155.