Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau Extract against Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 in Koi Fin Cell Line

Main Article Content

Thanida Haetrakul
Boonchoo Sritularak
Nantarika Chansue


Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) or Koi herpesvirus (KHV) is a virulence viral infection in common carp and koi. The disease has caused global epizootic and economic loss in fish aquaculture and in the wild. Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.), belonging to the family Acantaceae, is a well-known medicinal plant used in Thai traditional medicine. Virucidal effects of the plant extract against human herpes simplex virus have been reported. In this study, C. nutans crude extract, dichloromethane fraction and n-butanol fraction were tested for antiviral activities against CyHV-3 in koi fin cell line. The extracts were tested for cytotoxicity, pre and post infection antiviral activities. The 50% cytotoxic concentration of crude extract was at 1,701.57 µg/ml, dichloromethane fraction at 522.47 µg/ml and n-butanol fraction at 1,797.98 µg/ml. Effective concentrations of the crude extract pre and post-infection were at 250, 500 and 1,000 µg/ml. The dichloromethane fraction and n-butanol fraction did not have antiviral activity. The results showed that crude extract expressed antiviral activity against CyHV-3 which can be applied as therapeutic agents in common carp and koi in the future.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Research Article


Direkbusarakom, S., Herunsalee, A., Yoshimizu, M. and Ezura, Y. 1996. Antiviral activity of several Thai traditional herb extracts against fish pathogenic viruses. Fish Pathol. 31(4): 209-213.
Direkbusarakom, S., Ruangpan, L., Ezura, Y. and Yoshimizu, M. 1998.Protective efficacy of Clinacanthus nutans on Yellow-head disease in Black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). Fish Pathol. 33(4): 401-404.
Haetrakul, T. 2009. In vitro antiviral activity of Acyclovir and Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau extract against Koi Herpesvirus (KHV). M.S. thesis, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University. 72pp.
Hedrick, R.P., Gilad, O., Yun, S.C., Spangenberg, J.V., Marty, G.D., Nordhausen, R.W. and Kebus, M.J. 2000. A herpesvirus associated with mass mortality of juvenile and adult koi, a strain of common carp. J. Aquat. Anim. Health. 12(1): 44-57.
Janwitayanuchit, W., Suwanborirux, K., Patarapanich, C., Pummangura, S., Lipipun, V. and Vilaivan, T. 2003.Synthesis and anti-herpes simplex viral activity ofmonoglycosyl diglycerides. Phytochemistry. 64(7): 1253-1264.
Jayavasu, C., Balachandra, K., Sangkitjaporn, S., Maharungraungrat, A., Thavatsu, P., Bunjob, M., Chavalittumrong, P., Dechatiwongse, T. and Sittisomwong, N. 1992a. Clinical trial in the treatment of genital herpes patients with Clinacanthus nutans extract. J. Com. Dis. 18(3): 152 – 161.
Jayavasu, C., Dechatiwongse, T., Balachandra, K., Chavalittumrong, P. and Jongtrakulsiri, S. 1992b. The virucidal activity of Clinacanthus nutans Lindau extracts against herpes simplex virus type-2: an in vitro study. Bull. Dept. Med. Sci. 34(4): 153-158.
Kunsorn, P., Ruangrungsi, N., Lipipun, V., Khanboon, A. and Rungsihirunrat, K. 2013. The identities and anti-herpes simplex virus activity of Clinacanthus nutans and Clinacanthus siamensis. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 3(4): 284-290.
Perelberg, A., Ronen, A., Hutoran, M., Smith, Y. and Kotler, M. 2005. Protection of cultured Cyprinus carpio against a lethal viral disease by an attenuated virus vaccine. Vaccine. 23(26): 3396-3403.
Perelberg, A., Smirnov, M., Hutoran, M., Diamant, A., Bejerano, Y. and Kotler, M. 2003. Epidemiological description of a new viral disease afflicting cultured Cyprinuscarpio in Israel. Isr. J. Aquacult. 55(1): 5-12.
Pongmuangmul, S., Phumiamorn, S., Sanguansermsri, P. and Wongkattiya, N. 2016. Anti-herpes simplex virus activities of monogalactosyl diglyceride and digalactosyl diglyceride from Clinacanthus nutans, a traditional Thai herbal medicine. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 6 (3): 192-197.
Reed, L.J. and Muench, H. 1938. A Simple method of estimating fifty percent end points. Am. J. Hyg. 27(3): 493-497.
Ronen, A., Perelberg, A., Abramowitz, J., Hutoran, M., Tinman, S., Bejerano, I., Steinitz, M. and Kotler, M. 2003. Efficient vaccine against the virus causing a lethal disease in cultured Cyprinus carpio. Vaccine. 21(32): 4677-4684.
Ronen, A., Perelberg, A., Hutoran, M., Shapira, Y., Steinitz, M., Levavi-Sivan, B., Pikarsky, E. and Kotler, M. 2005. Prevention of a mortal disease of carps induced by the carp interstitial nephritis and gill necrosis virus (CNGV) in Israel. Bull. Fish. Agen. 2: 9–11.
Sakdarat, S., Shuyprom, A., Pientong, C., Ekalaksananan, T. and Thongchai, S. 2009. Bioactive constituents from the leaves of nutans Lindau. Bio. Med. Chem. 17(5): 1857-1860.
Sangkitporn, S., Chaiwat, S., Balachandra, K., Na-Ayudhaya, T.D., Bunjob, M. and Jayavasu, C. 1995. Treatment of herpes zoster with Clinacanthus nutans (bi phaya yaw) extract. J. Med. Assoc. Thai. 78(11): 624-627.
Satayavivad, J., Bunyapraphatsara, N., Kittisiripornkul, S. and Tanasomwang, W. 1996. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of extract of Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau. Thai J. Phytophar. 3(1): 7-17.
Teshima, K., Kaneko, T., Ohtani, K., Kansai, R., Lhieochaiphant, S., Picheansoonthon, C. and Yamasaki, K. 1998. Sulfur-containing glucosides from Clinacanthus nutans. Phytochemistry. 48 (5): 831-835.
Thawaranantha, D., Balachandra, K., Jongtrakulsiri, S., Chavalittumrong, P., Bhumiswasdi, J. and Jayavasu, C. 1992. In vitro antiviral activity of Clinacanthus nutans on varicella-zoster virus. Siriraj Hosp. Gaz. 44(4): 285-291.
Thormar, H., Isaacs C.E., Kim, K.S. and Brown, H.R. 1994. Inactivation of visna virus and other enveloped viruses by free fatty acids and monoglycerides. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 724: 465-471.
Tuntiwachwuttikul, P., Pootaeng-On, Y., Phansa, P., Taylor, W.C. 2004. Cerebrosides and a mono acylmonogalactosylglycerol from Clinacanthus nutans. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 52: 27-32.
Yasumoto, S., Kuzuya, Y., Yasuda, M., Yoshimura, T. and Miyazaki, T. 2006. Oral immunization of common carp with a liposome vaccine fusing koi herpesvirus antigen. Fish Pathol. 41(4):141–5.
Vachirayonstien, T., Promkhatkaew, D., Bunjob, M., Chueyprom, A., Chavalittumrong, P., and Sawanpanyalert, P. 2010. Molecular evaluation of extracellular activity of medicinal herb Clinacanthus nutans against herpes simplex virus type-2. Nat. Prod. Res. 24: 236-245.