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Skin biopsy of a five-year-old male albino buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) was submitted for histopathological diagnosis. The buffalo had a history of multiple skin nodules, ulceration and scab formation at the trunk for about two months. Histopathological examination revealed superficial ulceration with inflammatory reaction and underlying proliferation of fibroblasts among collagen bundles within the dermis. The proliferated fibroblasts showed large oval to round eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Immunohistochemically (IHC), the proliferated cells were strongly positive to vimentin. Immunohistochemical reaction to pancytokeratin was negative. The diagnosis of cutaneous fibromatosis was made. For transmission electron microscopic examination from the formalin fixed skin samples, some immature virions, about 200x300 nm. in size and morphologic consistent with poxvirus, were detected within cytoplasmic inclusion body. Fibromatosis with intracytoplasmic inclusion body was a rare condition reported in human and animals. In animals, poxvirus associated with fibromatosis or myxomatosis was well documented in Lagomorphs such as rabbits and hares. The presence of poxvirus associated with fibromatosis with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion body in an albino buffalo has never been documented in the literature. This article demonstrates atypical form of poxvirus infection with histopathologically appearance as fibromatosis in an albino buffalo. Veterinarians deal with nodular and ulcerative skin lesions without responsive to treatment in buffalo should keep in mind of a possible fibromatosis, poxviral associated lesions, as observed in this study.
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