Is buffalo more resistant to Neospora caninum infection than cattle?

Main Article Content

Jitbanjong Toompong


Whereas the abortion rate caused by Neospora caninum infection in cattle was reported increasingly worldwide, the role of N.caninum infection in buffaloes was questioned.  Many studies concluded that the buffaloes were more resistant to N.caninum infection since they had lower seroprevalence than the cattle reared together in the same area.  On the contrary, the prevalence of N.caninum infection in buffaloes worldwide was many times higher than the prevalence in cattle.  This review article provides concept knowledge of the disease caused by N.caninum in buffaloes, the prevalence and the disease transmission.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Review Article


Aguiar, D. M., G. T. Cavalcante, A. A. R. Rodrigues, M. B. Labruna, L. M. A. Camargo, E. P. Camargo, and S. M. Gennari. 2006. Prevalence of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in cattle and dogs from Western Amazon, Brazil, in association with some possible risk factors. Vet. Parasitol. 142: 71-77.

Anderson, M. L., A. G. Andrianarivo, and P. A. Conrad. 2000. Neosporosis in cattle. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 60-61: 417-431.

Auriemma, C., M. G. Lucibelli, G., Borriello, E. De Carlo, A., Martucciello, L., Schiavo, A., Gallo, F., Bove, F., Corrado, S. Girardi, M. G. Amoros, B. Ďegli Uberti, and G. Galiero, G. 2014. PCR detection of Neospora caninum in water buffalo foetal tissues. Acta Parasitol. 59(1): 1-4.

Bae, J. S., D. Y. Kim, W. S. Hwang, J. H. Kim, N. S. Lee, and H. W. Nam. 2000. Detection of IgG antibody against Neospora caninum in cattle in Korea. Korean J. Parasitol. 38(4): 245-249.

Barbosa da Silva, J., R. R. Nicolino, G. M. Fagundes, H. D. A. Bomjardim, A. D. S. B. Reis, D. H. da Silva Lima, C. M. C. Oliveira, J. D. Barbosa, and A. H. da Fonseca. 2017. Serological survey of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in cattle (Bos indicus) and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in ten provinces of Brazil. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 52: 30-35.

Bărburaș, D., A. Gyӧrke, A. M. Ionică, R. Bărburaș, V. Mircean, and V. Cozma. 2019. Evidence of Neospora caninum infection in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Northwestern Romania. Parasitol. Res. 118(5): 1667-1671.

Bártová, E., K. Sedlak, and M. Budíková. 2015. A study of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibody seroprevalence in healthy cattle in the Czech Republic. Ann. Agric. Environ. Med. 22(1): 32-34.

Björkman, C., S. Alenius, U. Emanuelsson, and A. Uggla. 2000. Neospora caninum and bovine virus diarrhea virus infections in Swedish dairy cows in relation to abortion. Vet. J. 159: 201-206.

Cantón, G. J., J. L. Konrad, D. P. Moore, S. G. Caspe, J. Palarea-Albaladejo, C. M. Campero, and F. Chianini. 2014. Characterization of immune cell infiltration in the placentome of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) infected with Neospora caninum during pregnancy. J. Comp. Pathol. 150(4): 463-468.

Chryssafidis, A. L., R. M. Soares, A. A. Rodrigues, N. A. Carvalho, and S. M. Gennari. 2011. Evidence of congenital transmission of Neospora caninum in naturally infected water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) fetus from Brazil. Parasitol. Res. 108(3): 741-743.

Chryssafidis, A. L., G. Cantón, F. Chianini, E. A. Innes, E. H. Madureira, R. M. Soares, and S. M. Gennari. 2015. Abortion and foetal lesions induced by Neospora caninum in experimentally infected water buffalos (Bubalus bubalis). Parasitol. Res. 114(1): 193-199.

Ciuca, L., G. Borriello, A. Bosco, L. D'Andrea, G. Cringoli, P. Ciaramella, M. P. Maurelli, D. Loria, L. Rinaldi, and J. Guccione. 2020. Seroprevalence and Clinical Outcomes of Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Besnoitia besnoiti Infections in Water Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Animals (Basel). 10(3): 532.

Crudeli, G., C. M. Campero, D. P. Moore, D. Benitez, G. Draghi, D. Polich, J. Konrad, D. Cano, M. R. Leunda, M. Arzeno, and A. Odeon. 2007. High prevalence of Neospora caninum antibodies in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in ranches of Corrientes, Chaco and Formosa provinces, Argentina. Italian J. Anim. Sci. 6(sup2): 945-947.

da Silva, J.B., P. N. Dos Santos G. N. de Santana Castro, A. H. da Fonseca, and J. D. Barbosa J.D. 2014. Prevalence survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil. J. Parasitol. Res. 2014: 603484.

da Silva, J. B., R. R. Nicolino, G. M. Fagundes, H. Dos Anjos Bomjardim, A. Dos Santos Belo Reis, D. H. da Silva Lima, C. M. C. Oliveira, J. D. Barbosa, and A. H. da Fonseca. 2017. Serological survey of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in cattle (Bos indicus) and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in ten provinces of Brazil. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 52: 30-35.

Davison, H. C., C. S. Guy, J. W. McGarry, F. Guy, D. J. L. Williams, D. F. Kelly, and A. J. Trees. 2001. Experimental studies on the transmission of Neospora caninum between cattle. Res. Vet. Sci. 70: 163-168.

Dijkstra, Th., H. W. Barkema, M. Eysker, and W. Wouda. 2001. Evidence of post-natal transmission of Neospora caninum in Dutch dairy herds. Int. J. Parasitol. 31: 209-215.

Dubey, J. P. and G. Schares. 2011. Neosporosis in animals the last five years. Vet. Parasitol. 180(1-2): 90-108.

Dubey, J. P., D. Buxton, and W. Wouda. Pathogenesis of bovine neosporosis. 2006. J. Comp. Path. 134: 267-289.

Dubey, J. P., S. Romand, M. Hilali, O. C. H. Kwok, and P. Thulliez. 1998. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Egypt. Int. J. Parasitol. 28: 527–529.

Dyer, R. M., M. C. Jenkins, O. C. H. Kwok, L. W. Douglas, and J. P. Dubey. 2000. Serologic survey of Neospora caninum infection in a closed dairy cattle herd in Maryland: risk of serologic reactivity by production groups. Vet. Parasitol. 90: 171-181.

Dubey, J. P., G. Schares, and L. M. Ortega-Mora. 2007. Epidemiology and control of neosporosis and Neospora caninum. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 20: 323-367.

Gavrea, R. R., A. Iovu, B. Losson, and V. Cozma. 2011. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in dairy cattle from north-west and centre of Romania. Parasite. 18(4): 349-351.

Gennari, S. M., A. A. R. Rodgrigues, R. B. Viana, and E. C. Cardoso. 2005. Occurrence of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from the northern region of Brazil. Vet. Parasitol. 134: 169-171.

Guarino, A., G. Fusco, G. Savini, G. Di Francesco, and G. Cringoli. 2000. Neosporosis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in southern Italy. Vet. Parasitol. 91: 15–21.

Hajikolaei, M. R. H., S. Goraninejad, H. Hamidinejati, M. Ghorbanpour, and R. Paryab. 2007. Occurrence of Neospora caninum antibodies in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from the South-western region of Iran. Bull. Vet. Inst. Pulawy, 51: 233-235.

Huong, L. T., B. L. Ljungström, A. Uggla, and C. Björkman. 1998. Prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in cattle and water buffaloes in southern Vietnam. Vet. Parasitol. 75(1): 53-57.

Ichikawa-Seki, M., A. Guswanto, P. Allamanda, E. S. Mariamah, P. E. Wibowo, and Y. Nishikawa. 2016. Seroprevalence of antibody to NcSAG1 antigen of Neospora caninum in cattle from Western Java, Indonesia. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 78(1): 121-123.

Kengradomkij, C., T. Inpankaew, K. Kamyingkird, K. Wongpanit, S. Wongnakphet, T. J. Mitchell, X. Xuan, I. Igarashi, S. Jittapalapong, and R. W. Stich. 2015. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with exposure of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) to Neospora caninum in northeast Thailand Vet. Parasitol. 207(1-2): 156-160.

Koiwai, M., T. Hamaoka, M. Haritani, S. Shimizu, Y. Zeniya, M. Eto, R. Yokoyama, T. Tsutsui, K. Kimura, and I. Yamane. 2006. Nationwide seroprevalence of Neospora caninum among dairy cattle in Japan. Vet. Parasitol. 135(2): 175-179.

Konrad, J. L., D. P. Moore, G. Crudeli, S. G. Caspe, D. B. Cano, M. R. Leunda, L. Lischinsky, J. Regidor-Cerrillo, A. C. Odeón, L. M. Ortega-Mora, I. Echaide, I. and Campero, C.M. 2012. Experimental inoculation of Neospora caninum in pregnant water buffalo. Vet. Parasitol. 187(1-2): 72-78.

Konrad, J. L., L. M. Campero, G. S. Caspe, B. Brihuega, G. Draghi, D. P. Moore, G. A. Crudeli, M. C. Venturini, and C. M. Campero. 2013. Detection of antibodies against Brucella abortus, Leptospira spp., and Apicomplexa protozoa in water buffaloes in the Northeast of Argentina. Trop. Anim. Health. Prod. 45(8): 1751-1756.

Kowalczyk, S. J., M. Czopowicz, C. N. Weber, E. Müller, L. Witkowski, and J. Kaba. 2016. Herd-level seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle in central and northeastern Poland. Acta Parasitol. 61(1): 63-65.

Lindsay, D. S., S. J. Upton, and J. P. Dubey 1999. A structural study of the Neospora caninum oocyst. Int. J. Parasitol. 29(10): 1521-1523.

Mahajan, V., H. S. Banga, and G. Filia. 2019. Patho-epidemiological and risk factor studies for detection of Neospora-associated abortion in cattle and buffaloes in Punjab, India. Rev. Sci. Tech. 38(3): 801-808.

McAllister, M. M., J. P. Dubey, D. S. Lindsay, W. R. Jolley, R. A. Wills, and A. M. McGuire. 1998. Dogs are definitive hosts of Neospora caninum. Int. J. Parasitol. 28(9): 1473-1478.

Meenakshi, K. S. Sandhu, M. S. Ball, H. Kumar, S. Sharma, P. K. Sidhu, C. Sreekumar, and J. P. Dubey. 2007. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum antibodies in cattle and water buffaloes in India. J. Parasitol. 93(6): 1374-1377.

Mitrea, I. L., V. Enachescu, R. Radulescu, and M. Ionita. 2012. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection on dairy cattle in farms from southern Romania. J. Parasitol. 98(1): 69-72.

Moloney, B. J., P. D. Kirkland, and C. Heuer. 2017. Neospora caninum in beef herds in New South Wales, Australia. 1: seroprevalence study. Aust. Vet. J. 95(3): 72-79.

Moore, D. P., J. L. Konrad, S. San Martino, M. P. Reichel, D. B. Cano, S. Ménde, E. J. Späth, A. C. Odeón, G. Crudeli, and C. M. Campero. 2014. Neospora caninum serostatus is affected by age and species variables in cohabiting water buffaloes and beef cattle. Vet. Parasitol. 203(3-4): 259-263.

Nam, N. H., A. Chanlun, K. Kanistanon, and S. Aiumlamai. 2012. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in Swamp Buffaloes and Beef Cattle in the Northeast of Thailand. Thai J. Vet. Med. 42(2): 213-218.

Nasir, A., M. Ashraf, M. S. Khan, T. Yaqub, A. Javeed, M. Avais, and F. Akhtar. 2011. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in dairy buffaloes in Lahore District, Pakistan. J. Parasitol. 97(3): 541-543.

Nasir, A., S. R. Lanyon, G. Schares, M. L. Anderson, and M. P. Reichel. 2012. Sero-prevalence of Neospora caninum and Besnoitia besnoiti in South Australian beef and dairy cattle. Vet. Parasitol. 186(3-4): 480-485.

Neverauskas, C. E., A. Nasir, and M. P. Reichel. 2015. Prevalence and distribution of Neospora caninum in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle in the Northern Territory of Australia. Parasitol. Int. 64(5): 392-396.

Okumu, T. A., N. M. John,J. K. Wabacha, V. Tsuma, and J. VanLeeuwen. 2019. Seroprevalence of antibodies for bovine viral diarrhoea virus, Brucella abortus and Neospora caninum, and their roles in the incidence of abortion/foetal loss in dairy cattle herds in Nakuru District, Kenya BMC Vet. Res. 15(1): 95.

Otranto, D., A. Llazari, G. Testini, D. Traversa, A. F. di Regalbono, M. Badan, and G. Capelli. 2003. Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of neosporosis in beef and dairy cattle in Italy. Vet. Parasitol. 118: 7-18.

Quintanilla-Gozalo, A., J. Pereira-Bueno, E. Tabarés, E. A. Innes, R. González-Paniello, and L. M. Ortega-Mora. 1999. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in dairy and beef cattle in Spain. Int. J. Parasitol. 29(8): 1201-1208.

Reichel, M. P., M. M. McAllister, A. Nasir, and D. P. Moore. 2015. A review of Neospora caninum in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Vet. Parasitol. 212(3-4): 75-79.

Rezvan, H., A. Khaki, M. Namavari, and R. Abedizadeh. 2019. An investigation of the concurrency of anti-Neospora antibody and parasitemia in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in northwest of Iran. Vet. Res. Forum. 10(1): 79-84.

Rodrigues, A. A., S. M. Gennari, D. M. Aguiar, C. Sreekumar, D. E. Hill, K. B. Miska, M. C. Vianna, and J. P. Dubey. 2004. Shedding of Neospora caninum oocysts by dogs fed tissues from naturally infected water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Brazil. Vet. Parasitol. 124(3-4): 139-150.

Rodrigues, A. A., S. M. Gennari, V. S. Paula, D. M. Aguiar, T. U. Fujii, W. Starke-Buzeti, R. Z. Machado, and J. P. Dubey. 2005. Serological responses to Neospora caninum in experimentally and naturally infected water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Vet. Parasitol. 129(1-2): 21-24.

Romero-Salas, D., C. Alvarado-Esquivel, G. Domínguez-Aguilar, A. Cruz-Romero, N. Ibarra-Priego, C. Barrientos-Salcedo, M. Aguilar-Domínguez, R. Canseco-Sedano, L. T. Espín-Iturbe, L. F. Sánchez-Anguiano, J. Hernández-Tinoco, and A. A. P. de León. 2017. Seroepidemiology of Infection with Neospora caninum, Leptospira, and Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1 in Water Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Veracruz, Mexico. Eur. J. Microbiol. Immunol. (Bp). 7(4): 278-283.

Sanderson, M. W., J. M. Gay, and T. V. Baszler. 2000. Neospora caninum seroprevalence and associated risk factors in beef cattle in the northwestern United States. Vet. Parasitol. 90(1-2): 15-24.

Schares, G., M. Peters, R. Wurm, A. Barwald, and F. J. Conraths. 1998. The efficiency of vertical transmission of Neospora caninum in dairy cattle analysed by serological techniques. Vet. Parasitol. 80: 87-98.

Scott, H. M., O. Sorensen, J. T. Wu, E. Y. Chow, K. Manninen, and J. A. VanLeeuwen. 2006. Seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, Neospora caninum, bovine leukemia virus, and bovine viral diarrhea virus infection among dairy cattle and herds in Alberta and agroecological risk factors associated with seropositivity. Can. Vet. J. 47: 981-991.

Sengupta, P. P., M. Balumahendiran, A. G. Raghavendra, T. G. Honnappa, M. R. Gajendragad, and K. Prabhudas. 2013. Prevalence of Neospora caninum antibodies in dairy cattle and water buffaloes and associated abortions in the plateau of Southern Peninsular India. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 45(1): 205-210.

Tennent-Brown, B. S., W. E. Pomroy, M. P. Reichel, P. L. Gray, T. S. Marshall, P. A. Moffat, M. Rogers, V. A. Driscoll, O. F. Reeve, A. L. Ridler, and S. Ritaven. 2000. Prevalence of Neospora antibodies in beef cattle in New Zealand. N. Z. Vet. J. 48(5): 149-150.

Wang, C., Y. Wang, X. Zou, Y. Zhai, J. Gao, M. Hou, and X. Zhu. 2010. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle in northeastern China. J. Parasitol. 96(2): 451-452.

Wiengcharoen, J. 2010. Neosporosis: Why does abortion occur? KKU Vet.J. 20(2): 218-225.

Xia, H., D. Zhou, K. Jia, X. Zeng, D. Zhang, L. She, R. Lin, Z. Yuan, S. Li, and Z. Zhu. 2011. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle of Southern China. J. Parasitol. 97(1): 172-173.

Yu, J., Z. Xia, Q. Liu, J. Liu, J. Ding, and W. Zhang. 2007. Seroepidemiology of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in cattle and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in the People's Republic of China. Vet. Parasitol. 143(1): 79-85.