Surveillance of Knowledge, and Opinion among Pets Owner on Tobacco Effect on Pets’ Health

Main Article Content

Pongsri Srimoragot
Pratuang Sudsakorn
Phornchai Suwannaphirom
Kanin Ruchisereekul


The survey was carried out to explore pet owners’ knowledge, opinions, and practices regarding nicotine toxicity or secondhand smoke (SHS), and to compare the differences between knowledge and opinions between pet owners who are non-smokers and who are currently smokers. Seven hundred and forty-two participants were recruited in the study. Among these, only 11.5% were smokers with the mean knowledge score at approximately 1.86 out of 13. Interestingly, around 90.1% never realized about the harmfulness of this substance. They suggested that veterinarians should play an important role on being a model to quit smoking and provide information of this harzardous compound. Moreover, most of the owners would try reducing tobacco used while living near pets and/or start quitting smoking. Although the low knowledge score, pet owner still brought their pets to animal hospital in suspected cases. This information supported that the veterinarian-pet owner relationship is important in order to reduce risk of the nicotine and SHS toxicity. Further studies are needed to investigate other related environmental factors in associated with this issue.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Research Article


American Veterinarian Medical Association, 2020. Available from: https://www.avma.orgesources/pet-owners/petcare/stop-smoking-your-health-and-your-pets-health.

Bertone-Johnson, E. R., E. Proctor-Gray, A. L. Gollenberg, M. E. Bundga, and L. G. Barber. 2007. Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level. Environ. Res. 106(3): 361-364.

Bertone, E. R., L. A. Snyder, and A. S. Moore. 2002. Environmental tobacco smoke and risk of malignant lymphoma in pet cats. Am. J. Epidemiol. 156(3): 268 -73.

Business Data Processing and Analysis Section. Business Information Division. 2018. December newsletter. Pet caring business report. Available from: 2561/T26/T26_201812.pdf. (In Thai)

Campbell, M. A. 2017. Health effects of secondhand smoke on pets. In: Tobacco in Australia: Facts and issues. Scollo, M.M., and Winstanley, M.H. (eds). Available from: chapter-4secondhand/4-20-health-effects-secondhand-smoke-on-pets.

Chalamwong, N. 2009. Motivation to take care pet as entertainment of Bangkokians. Thesis submitted for master of Art. (Entertainment management) Bangkok. Graduated Faculty, Srinakharinwirot University. Available from: (In Thai)

Hackendahl, N. C. and C. W. Sereda, C.W. 2004. Toxicology brief: The danger of nicotine ingestion in dogs. Veterinary Medicine. pp. 218-224.

Halimi, J. M., C. Philippon, and A. Mimran. 1998. Contrasting renal effects of nicotine in smokers and non-smokers. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 13(4): 940-944.

Krejcie, R. V. and D. W. Morgan. 1970. Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 30: 607-610.

Kumprasit, V. and T. Chantuk. 2020. The research raising pet behavior of elderly people in Banchand Rayong. Thesis submitted for Humanity sociology and education. English program. Faculty of Management Science. Silpakorn University. Petchaburi Campus. Available from: (In Thai)

Lee, J. and J. P. Cooke. 2011. The role of nicotine in the pathogenesis of artherosclerosis. Artherosclerosis. 215(2): 281-283.

Lien, Y. C., W. Wang, L. J. Kuo, J. J. Liu, P. L. Wei, Y. S. Ho, W. C. Ting, C. H. Wu, and Y. J. Chang. 2011. Nicotine promotes cell migration through alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor n gastric cancer cells. 18(9): 2671-2679.

Lin, C. H., P. Y. Lo, H. D. Wu, C. Chang, and L. C. Wang. 2018. Association between indoor air pollution and respiratory disease in companion dogs and cats. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 32(3): 1259-1267.

Lin, C. H., P. Y. Lo, and H. D. Wu. 2020. An observational study of the role of indoor air pollution in pets with naturally acquired bronchial/lung disease. Vet. Med. Sci. doi: 10.1002./vms3.231.

Mishra, A., P. Chaturvadi, S. Datta, S. Sinukumar, S., P. Joshi, and A. Garg. 2015. Harmful effects of nicotine. Indian J. Med. Paediatr. Oncol. 36(1): 24-31.

Milberger, S. M., R. M. Davis, and A. L. Holm. 2009. Pet owners' attitude and behaviors related to smoking and second-hand smoker: a pilot study. Tobacco Control. 18(2): 156-158.

Office of International des Epizooties (OIE), 2020. Available from:

Ogle, C. W., B. S. Qiu, and C. H. Cho. 1993. Nicotine and gastric ulcers in stress. J. Physiol. Paris. 87(6): 359-365.

Pérez, N., A. Berrío, J. E. Jaramillo, R. Urrego, and M. P. Arias. 2014. Exposure to cigarette smoke causes DND damage in oropharyngeal tissue in dogs. Mutation Res/Gen Toxicol. Environ. Mutagenesis. 769(15): 13-19.

Pipatkarn, P., C. Chaisuekul, and K. Suanpong. 2016. Factors Affecting the Dog-Owner Relationship. The 7th Hadyai national and international conference. Hadyai University. Available from: (paradee/20/20pipatkarn).pdf. (In Thai)

Reif, J. S., C. Bruns, and K. S. Lower. 1998. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in pet dogs. Am. J. Epidemiol. 147(5): 488–492.

Reif, J. S., K. Dunn, G. K., Ogilvie, and C. K. Harris. 1992. Passive smoking and canine lung cancer risk. Am. J. Epidemiol. 135(3): 234-239.

Smith, V. A., A. R. McBrearty, D. G. Watson, D. J. Mellor, S. Spence, and C. Knottenbelt. 2017. Hair nicotine concentration measurement in cats and its relationship to owner-reported environmental tobacco smoke exposure. J. Small Anim. Pract. 58(1): 3-9.

Sopori, M. L., W. Kozak, S. M. Savage, Y. Geng, D. Soszynski, M. J. Kluger, E. K. Perryman, and G. E. Snow. 1998. Effect of nicotine on the immune system: possible regulationof immune response by central and peripheral mechanisms. Psychoneuro endocrinology. 23(2): 189-204.

Simoneti, C. S., E. Ferraz, M. B. Menezes, T. R. Icuma, and E. C. Vianna. 2018. Cat ownership is associated with increased asthma and prevalence and dog ownership with decreased spirometry values. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 51(12): e7558.

Vig, M. M. 1990. Nicotine poisoning in a dog. Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 32(6): 573-575.

Wassenaar, C. A., Q. Dong, C. I. Amos, M. R. Spit, and R. F. Tyndale. 2013. Pilot study of CYP2B6genetic variation to explore the contribution of nitrosamine activation to lung carcinogenesis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14(4): 8381-8392.

World Health Organization (WHO), 2019. WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic. Available from:

Zierenberg-Ripoll, A., R. E. Pollard, S. L. Stewart, S. D. Allstadt, L. E. Barrett, J. M. Gillem, and K. A. Skorupski. 2017. Association between environmental factors including second-hand smoke and primary lung cancer in dogs. J. Small Anim. Pract. 59(6): 343-349.