Impact of Nonselective Muscarinic Cholinergic Antagonist (Atropine) on Goat Semen Quality and Seminal Fluid Volume

Main Article Content

Sakdichod Kimsakulvech
Tuempong Wongtawan
Sookruetai Boonmasawai
Arpron Leesombun
Chowalit Nakthong
Yupaporn Lanamtiang
Waraluk Oupala


The parasympathetic nervous system plays an important role in controlling the semen quality via manipulation of accessory glands in many species. Seminal fluid has a negative impact on semen cryopreservation in goats. We hypothesized that reducing the secretion of seminal fluid during semen collection may help to improve the quality of semen cryopreservation. In this study, we used atropine to inhibit the parasympathetic pathway. Six different concentrations (0.02, 0.04, 0.08, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2 mg/kg) of atropine were tested in twelve male goats. The final concentration (0.2 mg/kg) was tested in two consecutive semen collections. Physiological changes, including heart rate and pupil response, were evaluated before and after the atropine injection. The results revealed that atropine did not affect most of the reproductive system, including copulation, ejaculation, semen quality and seminal fluid volume, protein concentration and protein profile. However, some dosages of atropine affected other body systems, such as increased heart rate at a dose of more than 0.1 mg/kg and pupil dilation at a dose greater than 0.04 mg/kg. In conclusion, we proposed that parasympathetic inhibition by atropine did not impact the goat's male reproductive system and suggested that the parasympathetic system may not be important for regulating the male reproductive system in goats. 


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Research Article


Aguiar, G.V., van Tilburg, M.F., Catunda, A.G.V., Celes, C.K.S., Lima, I.C.S., Campos, A.C.N., Moura, A.A.A., and Araújo, A.A. 2013. Sperm parameters and biochemical components of goat seminal plasma in the rainy and dry seasons in the Brazilian Northeast: the season's influence on the cooling of semen. Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zoo. 65: 6-12.

Baker, R.D., Vandemark, N.L., Graves, C.N., and Norton, H.W. 1964. Effects of pilocarpine on copulatory behaviour, ejaculation and semen. J. Reprod. Fertil. 8: 297-303.

Coolen, L.M., Allard, J., Truitt, W.A., and McKenna, K.E. 2004. Central regulation of ejaculation. Physiol. Behav. 83: 203-215.

Dziuk, P.J. and Mann, T. 1963. Effect of atropine on the composition of semen and secretory function of male accessory organs in the boar. J. Reprod. Fertil. 5: 101-108.

Dziuk, P.J. and Norton, H.W. 1962. Influence of drugs affecting the autonomic system on seminal ejaculation. J. Reprod. Fertil. 4: 47-50.

Edwards, A,V, and Titchen, D.A. 2002. The effect of parasympathetic postganglionic denervation on parotid salivary protein secretion in anaesthetized sheep. Auton. Neurosci. 100: 50-57.

Evans, T.J. and Ganjam, V.K. 2011. Reproductive anatomy and physiology, In: Gupta RC (Ed.) Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology. Academic Press, San Diego. 7-32.

Ferreira. Vd.S., Mello, M.R.Bd., Fonseca, C.E.Md., Dias, Á.C.F., Cardoso, J.M., Silva, R.B., and Martins Jr. W.P. 2014. Effect of seminal plasma and egg yolk concentration on freezability of goat semen. Rev. Bras. Zootec. 43: 513-518.

Flecknell, P.A. 2009. Chapter 2 - Anaesthesia, In: Flecknell PA (Ed.) Laboratory Animal Anaesthesia (Third Edition). Academic Press, San Diego, 19-78.

Fonseca, J.F., Torres, C.A.A., Maffili, V.V., Borges, A.M., Santos, A.D.F., Rodrigues, M.T., and Oliveira, R.F.M. 2005. The hypoosmotic swelling test in fresh goat spermatozoa. Anim. Reprod. 2: 139-144.

Frydrychova S., Opletal, L., Macakova, K., Lustykova, A., Rozkot, M., and Lipensky, J. 2011. Effects of herbal preparation on libido and semen quality in boars. Reprod. Domest. Anim. 46: 573-578.

Hsieh, J.T., Kuo, Y.C., Chang, H.C., Liu, S.P., Chen, J.H., and Tsai, V.F. 2014. The role of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve systems on the smooth muscle of rat seminal vesicles - experimental results and speculation for physiological implication on ejaculation. Andrology. 2: 59-64.

Khan, I., Kumar, A., Singh, J., Peshin, P., and Singh, S. 2007. Evaluation of Atropine as an Anticholinergic in Buffalo Calves (Bubalus bubalis). Ital. J. Anim. Sci. 6: 999-1002.

Kimsakulvech, S., Boonmasawai, S., Gronsang, D., Nakthong, C., and Lanamtiang, Y. 2018. Small dosages of alpha1 adrenoceptor antagonist on goat semen quality and seminal fluid volume. Thai J. Vet. Med. 48: 567-572.

Kucuk, N., Aksoy, M., Ucan, U., Ahmad, E., Naseer, Z., Ceylan, A., and Serin, I. 2014. Comparison of two different cryopreservation protocols for freezing goat semen. Cryobiology. 68: 327-331.

Kumar, A.. 1977. Cardiovascular, respiratory and biochemical effects of atropine sulphate in goats. Indian Vet. J.

Leite-Browning, M.L. 2009. Biology of Reproductive of Goats, Alabama A&M and Auburn Universities. 1-7.

Memon, M.A., Bretzlaff, K.N., and Ott, R.S. 1985. Effect of washing on motility and acrosome morphology of frozen-thawed goat spermatozoa. Am. J. Vet. Res. 46: 473-475.

Moura, A.A., Memili, E., Portela, A.M.R., Viana, A.G., Velho, A.L.C., Bezerra, M.J.B, and Vasconselos, F.R. 2018. Seminal plasma proteins and metabolites: effects on sperm function and potential as fertility markers. Anim. Reprod. 15: 691-702.

O'Shaughnessy, P., 2015. Knobil and Neill's Physiology of reproduction, Vol 1, 4 Edition. Elsevier Inc, Waltham, MA ,United States of Ameirca.

Pablo, L.S., Webb, A.I., and McNicholas, W.T. Jr. 1995. The effects of atropine and glycopyrrolate on heart rates in conscious mature goats. Vet. Surg. 24: 531-534.

Poltep, K., Tesena, P., Yingchutrakul, Y., Taylor, J., and Wongtawan, T. 2018. Optimisation of a serum albumin removal protocol for use in a proteomic study to identify the protein biomarkers for silent gastric ulceration in horses. J. Equine. Sci. 29: 53-60.

Rodriguez-Martinez, H., Kvist, U., Ernerudh, J., Sanz, L., and Calvete, J.J. 2011. Seminal plasma proteins: what role do they play?. Am. J. Reprod. Immunol. 66(Suppl 1): 11-22.

Sias, B., Ferrato, F., Pellicer-Rubio, M.T., Forgerit, Y., Guillouet, P., Leboeuf, B., and Carrière, F. 2005. Cloning and seasonal secretion of the pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 present in goat seminal plasma. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. Mol. Cell Biol. Lipids. 1686: 169-180.

Tranquilli, W.J., Thurman, J.C., and Grimm, K.A., 2007. Lumb and Jones' veterinary anesthesia and analgesia. Blackwell Publishing.