Main Article Content
The present study aims to verify the chemical characteristic of β-glucan in Pleurotus sajor-caju crude extract and its effect as enriched agarose bioplastic film on wound healing of scratched chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells. Performed cell scratching assay on confluent monolayer CEF then assigned to 3 different treatment conditions, including blank agarose bioplastic film (agarose bioplastic film control), agarose bioplastic film enriched with 10-40 µg/ml of yeast β-glucan, and agarose bioplastic film enriched with 10-40 µg/ml of P. sajor-caju crude extract. This experiment was triplicated to observe wound healing at 0, 24, and 48 hours. The result shows the peak effect on wound healing in experimental groups, including yeast β-glucan 10 μg/ml, yeast β-glucan 20 μg/ml, and crude extract 40 μg/ml. In addition, the morphology of CEF cells post-treated by enriched agarose film appeared stellate-shaped with oval concentric nuclei. This finding might suggest the benefits of agarose bioplastic film-enriched Pleurotus sajor-caju crude extract on effective wound healing.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Ahmed, M., Abdullah, N., Shuib, A.S., and Razak, S.A. 2017. Influence of raw polysaccharide extract from
mushroom stalk waste on growth and pH perturbation induced-stress in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Aquaculture. 468: 60-70.
Arikan, E.B. and Ozsoy, H.D. 2015. A Review: Investigation of Bioplastics. Journal of Civil Engineering and
Architecture. 9: 188-192.
Awadhiya, A., Kumar, D., Rathore, K., Fatma, B. and Verma, V. 2016. Synthesis and characterization of agarose–
bacterial cellulose biodegradable composites. Polymer Bulletin. 74(7): 1-17.
Bano, K., Pandey, R., Fatima, J. and Roohi. New advancements of bioplastics in medical applications.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 9(2): 402-416.
Bao, X., Hayashi, K., Li, Y., Teramoto, A. and Abe, K. 2010. Novel agarose and agar fibers: Fabrication and
characterization. Materials Letters. 64: 2435–2437.
Choi, J., Kim, J., Jung, G., Moon, S., Cho, H., Sung, S Jung, J., Kwon, Y., Ku, S., and Sohn, J. 2016. Effect of a
β-Glucan from Aureobasidium on TGF-β1-Modulated In Vitro Dermal Wound Repair. Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences. 8(1): 12-18.
Dalonso, N., Souza, R., Silveira, M.L.L., Ruzza, A.A., Wagner, T.M., Wisbeck, E. and Furlan, S.A. 2010.
Characterization and Antineoplasic Effect of Extracts Obtained from Pleurotus sajor-caju Fruiting Bodies. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 160: 2265-2274.
Delavari, M.M. and Stiharu, I. 2022. Preparation and Characterization of Eco-Friendly Transparent Antibacterial
Starch/Polyvinyl Alcohol Materials for Use as Wound-Dressing. Micromachines. 13(6):960.
Deng, X., Gould, M. and Ali, M.A. 2022. A review of current advancements for wound healing: Biomaterial
applications and medical devices. Advances in Wound Care. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research.
Dias, A.L.B., a, de Aguiar, A.C., Rostagno, M.A. 2021. Extraction of natural products using supercritical fluids and
pressurized liquids assisted by ultrasound: Current status and trends. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry.
Finimundy, T.C., Barrosa, L., Calhelha, R.C., Alves, M.J., Prieto, M.A., Abreua, R.M.V., Dillon, A.J.P., Henriquesb,
J.A.P., Roesch-Elyb, M., Isabel and Ferreiraa, I.C.F.R. 2018. Multifunctions of Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer: A highly nutritious food and a source for bioactive compounds. Food Chemistry. 245: 150–158.
Gardikiotis, I., Cojocaru, F.D., Mihai, C.T., Balan, V. and Dodi, G. 2022. Borrowing the Features of Biopolymers for
Emerging Wound Healing Dressings: A Review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 23(15): 8778.
Grip, J., Steene, E., Engstad, R.E., Hart, J., Bell, A., Skjæveland, I., Basnet, P., Skalko-Basnet, N.S., and Holsæter,
A.M. 2021. Development of a novel beta-glucan supplemented hydrogel spray formulation and wound healing efficacy in a db/db diabetic mouse model. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics. 169: 280-219.
Jantaramanant, P. The effect of β-glucan-containing polysaccharide extract from the grey oyster mushroom
[P. sajor-caju (Fr.) Sing] on RAW264.7 macrophages and L6 muscle cells (Master’s Thesis, Prince of Songkla University, 2014). p. 24.
Kunanusont, N. Bactericidal and virucidal efficacies of a potassium peroxymonosulfate and inactivating
application on various surface carriers and avian influenza virus contaminated on clothes (Master’s Thesis, Mahanakorn University of Technology, 2019). p.24-25.
Liang, C., Park, A.Y. and Guan, J. 2007. In vitro scratch assay: a convenient and inexpensive method for analysis
of cell migration in vitro. Nature protocols. 2(2): 329-333.
Mir, M., Ali, M.N., Barakullah, A., Gulzar, A., Arshad, M., Fatima, S. and Asad, M. 2018. Synthetic polymeric
biomaterials for wound healing: a review. Progress in Biomaterials. 7:1-21.
Napavichayanun, S., Pienpinijtham, P., Reddy, N. and Aramwit, P. 2021. Superior Technique for the Production
of Agarose Dressing Containing Sericin and Its Wound Healing Property. Polymers. 13: 3370.
Nikonenko, N.A., Buslov, D.K., Sushko, N.I., and Zhbankov, R.G. 2000. Investigation of stretching vibrations of
glycosidic linkages in disaccharides and polysaccarides with use of IR spectra deconvolution. Biopolymers. 57(4): 257–262.
Nilles, J., Weiss, J. and Theile, D. 2022. Crystal violet staining is a reliable alternative to bicinchoninic acid assay-
based normalization. BioTechniques. 73: 131–135.
Normand, V., Lootens, D.L., Amici, E., Plucknett, K.P. and Aymard, P. 2000. New Insight into Agarose Gel
Mechanical Properties. Biomacromolecules. 1: 730-738.
Nuutila, K. and Eriksson, E. 2020. Moist Wound Healing with Commonly Available Dressings. Advances in Wound
Care. 10(2): 685-698.
Ovais, M., Ahmad, I., Khalil, A.T., Mukherjee, S., Javed, R., Ayaz, M., Raza, A., and Shinwari, Z.K. 2018. Wound
healing applications of biogenic colloidal silver and gold nanoparticles: recent trends and future prospects. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 102(10): 4305-4318.
Ozcelikkale, A., Dutton, J.C., Grinnell, F., and Han, B. 2017. Effects of dynamic matrix remodelling on en masse
migration of fibroblasts on collagen matrices. Journal of The Royal Society Interface. 14(135): 20170287.
Pai, D.R. and Madan, S.S. 2013. Techniques in Chronic Wound Management: Review of the Literature and
Recent Concepts. Novel Physiotherapies. 3:2.
Pijuan, J., Barceló, C., Moreno, D.F., Maiques, O., Sisó, P., Marti, R.M., Macià, A., and Panosa, A. 2019. In vitro Cell
Migration, Invasion, and Adhesion Assays: From Cell Imaging to Data Analysis. Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology. 7: 107.
Punyadarsaniya, D., Liang, C., Winter, C., Petersen, H., Rautenschlein, S., Hennig-Pauka, I., Schwegmann-Wessels,
C., Wu, C., Wong, C., and Herrler, G. 2011. Infection of differentiated porcine airway epithelial cells by influenza virus: differential susceptibility to infection by porcine and avian viruses. PLOS ONE.
Ravikanth, M., Soujanya, P., Manjunath, K., Saraswathi, T.R., and Ramachandran, C.R. 2011. Heterogenecity of
fibroblasts. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. 15(2): 247-250.
Robson, M.C., Steed, D.L. and Franz, M.G. 2001. Wound Healing: Biologic Features and Approaches to
Maximize Healing Trajectories. Current Problems in Surgery. 38(2): 72-141.
Saharan, B.S., Ankita and Sharma, D. 2012. Bioplastics-For Sustainable Development: A Review.
International Journal of Microbial Resource Technology. 1(1): 11-23.
Satitmanwiwat, S., Ratanakhanokchai, K., Laohakunjit, N., Chao, L.K., Chen, S.T., Pason, P., Kyu, K.L. 2012.
Improved purity and immunostimulatory activity of β-(1→3)(1→6)-Glucan from Pleurotus sajor-caju using cell wall-degrading enzymes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 60(21): 5423–5430.
Seo, G., Hyun, C., Choi, S., Kim, Y., and Cho, M. 2019. The wound healing effect of four types of beta-glucan.
Applied Biological Chemistry. 62: 20.
Son, H., Bae, H., Kim, H., Lee, D., Han, D. and Park, J. 2005. Effects of b-glucan on proliferation and migration of
fibroblast. Current Applied Physics. 5: 468–471.
Son, H., Han, D., Bae, H., Lim, H., Lee, M., Woo, Y., and Park, J. 2007. Stimulated TNF-a release in macrophage
and enhanced migration of dermal fibroblast by β-glucan. Current Applied Physics. 7S1: e33-e36.
Synytsya, A. and Novak, M. 2021. Structural analysis of glucans. Annals of Translational Medicine. 2(2): 17.
Treloar. K.K. and Simpson, M.J. 2013. Sensitivity of Edge Detection Methods for Quantifying Cell Migration Assays. PLOS ONE. 8(6): e67389.
Uzun, M. 2018. A review of wound management materials. Journal of Textile Engineering and Fashion
Velnar, T., Bailey, T., and Smrkolj, V. 2009. The wound healing process: an overview of the cellular and molecular
mechanisms. The Journal of International Medical Research. 37(5): 1528-1542.
Zafar, M. S., Ullah, R., Qamar, Z., Fareed, M. A., Amin, F., Khurshid, Z., and Sefat, F. 2019. Properties of dental
biomaterials. In: Advanced Dental Biomaterials. Woodhead Publishing, UK. p. 7-35.