Effects of Crude Extract of Hazardana (Phyllanthus urinaria) on Hepatopancreatic Health Status, Antioxidant, Immune Response and Resistance to Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

Main Article Content

๊Uton Charoendat
Worawut Koedprang
Jumroensri Thawonsuwan


The use of feed containing crude extract from Hazarnada (Phyllanthus urinaria) at ten times concentration increased within a range of 1 to 10,000 ppm, for rearing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), was investigated over a 56-day feeding trial. It was found that the decrease of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels in shrimp were in contrast to each ten-fold increase of the extract concentration, and the concentration levels of 1,000 and 10,000 ppm showed significant differences (p<0.05). In case of hepatosomatic index, total antioxidant capacity and phenoloxidase activity, no significant differences (p>0.05) were found in all concentrations of the extract fed to shrimp, although the tendency grew with increasing concentration. In this trial, the phagocytic activity had significantly elevated (p<0.05) when shrimp fed with diets containing 1,000 and 10,000 ppm of the extract. Regarding the study of resistance to acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus VPP infection in juvenile shrimp, the results exhibited that shrimp ingested 10,000 ppm extract-supplemented diet for 28 days had the highest survival rate and relative percentage survival (p<0.05). In conclusion, it is suggested that Hazardana crude extract can promote hepatopancreas health status of shrimp and may strengthen antioxidants, immunity and resistance to AHPND, but it must be applied with high concentration. Therefore, further studies on separation of specific active ingredients should be conducted to use this plant extract more effectively.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Charoendat อ., Koedprang ว., & Thawonsuwan จ. (2021). Effects of Crude Extract of Hazardana (Phyllanthus urinaria) on Hepatopancreatic Health Status, Antioxidant, Immune Response and Resistance to Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Rajamangala University of Technology Srivijaya Research Journal, 13(3), 717–731. Retrieved from https://li01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/rmutsvrj/article/view/244714
Research Article
Author Biographies

๊Uton Charoendat, Faculty of Science and Fisheries Technology, Rajamangala University of Technology Srivijaya

Faculty of Science and Fisheries Technology, Rajamangala University of Technology Srivijaya, Sikao, Trang 92150, Thailand.

Worawut Koedprang , Faculty of Science and Fisheries Technology, Rajamangala University of Technology Srivijaya

Faculty of Science and Fisheries Technology, Rajamangala University of Technology Srivijaya, Sikao, Trang 92150, Thailand.

Jumroensri Thawonsuwan, Songkhla Aquatic Animal Health Research Center

Songkhla Aquatic Animal Health Research Center, Muang, Songkhla 90100, Thailand.


APHA. 2012. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 22nd ed. American Public Health Association (APHA), American Water Works Association (AWWA) and Water Environment Federation (WEF), Washington, D.C., USA.

Balcázar, L.J., Rojas-Luna, T. and Cunningham, D.P. 2007. Effect of the addition of four potential probiotic strains on the survival of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) following immersion challenge with Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 96(2): 147-150.

Chang, Y.P., Liu, C.H., Wu, C.C., Chiang, C.M., Lian, J.L. and Hsieh, S.L. 2012. Dietary administration of zingerone to enhance growth, non-specific immune response, and resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) juveniles. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 32(2): 284 -290.

Dangtip, S., Sirikharin, R., Sanguanrut, P., Thitamadee, S., Sritunyalucksana, K., Taengchaiyaphum, S., Mavichake, R., Proespraiwonge, P. and Flegel, T.W. 2015. AP4 method for two-tube nested PCR detection of AHPND isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Aquaculture Reports 2(1): 158-162.

Direkbusarakom, S., Herunsalee, A., Boonyaratpalin, S., Danayadol, Y. and Aekpanithanpong, U. 1995. Effect of Phyllanthus spp. against yellow-head baculovirus infection in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, pp. 81-88. In Shariff, M, Arthur, J.R. and Subasinghe, R.P., eds. Diseases in Asian Aquaculture II. Fish Health Section. Asian Fisheries Society, Manila.

Direkbusarakom, S., Ezura, Y., Yoshimizu, M. and Herunsalee, A. 1998. Efficacy of Thai traditional herb extracts against fish and shrimp pathogenic bacteria. Fish Pathology 33(4): 437-441.

FAO. 2013. Report of the FAO/MARD technical workshop on early mortality syndrome (EMS) or acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome (AHPNS) of cultured shrimp (under TCP/VIE/3304), pp. 1-54. In FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Report No. 1053. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Geethangili, M. and Ding, S.T. 2018. A review of the phytochemistry and pharmacology of Phyllanthus urinaria L. Frontiers in Pharmacology 9: 1109.

Guo, Q., Zhang, Q.Q., Chen, J.Q., Zhang, W., Qiu, H.C., Zhang, Z.J., Liu, B.M. and Xu, F.G. 2017. Liver metabolomics study reveals protective function of Phyllanthus urinaria against CCl4-induced liver injury. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines 15(7): 525-533.

Jamshidizadeh, S., Biuki, N.A., Yousefzadi, M. and Aramideh, A. 2019. Response of Pacific white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) on exposure to aflatoxin in feed. Aquaculture Research 50(7): 1973-1984.

Jantan, I., Ilangkovan, M., Yuandani, and Mohamad, H.F. 2014. Correlation between the major components of Phyllanthus amarus and Phyllanthus urinaria and their inhibitory effects on phagocytic activity of human neutrophils. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 14: 429.

Khongsen, M., Niyomdecha, A., Harnnarong, W. and Sukchan, P. 2013. A Review of a property and advantage: Phyllanthus spp. Princess of Naradhiwas University Journal 5(4): 153-163. (in Thai)

Lee, Y.K., Chew, P.F., Soh, B.S. and Tham, L.Y. 2003. Enhancing phagocytic activity of hemocytes and disease resistance in the prawn Penaeus merguiensis by feeding Spirulina platensis. Journal of Applied Phycology 15(4): 279-287.

Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.L. and Randell, R.J. 1951. Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 193(1): 265-275.

Nemcsok, J. and Boross, L. 1982. Comparative study on the sensitivity of different fish species to metal pollution. Acta biologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 33(1): 23-27.

Niu, J., Li, C.H., Liu, Y.J., Tian, L.X., Chen, X., Huang, Z. and Lin, H.Z. 2012. Dietary values of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin in Penaeus monodon in the presence and absence of cholesterol supplementation: effect on growth, nutrient digestibility and tissue carotenoid composition. British Journal of Nutrition 108(1): 80-89.

Pacheco, M. and Santos, M.A. 2002. Biotransformation, ecotoxic and histopatological effects of environmental contaminants in European eel, Anguilla anguilla (L). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 53(3): 331-347.

Poompachee, K. and Chudapongse, N. 2012. Comparison of the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Phyllanthus virgatus and Phyllanthus amarus extracts. Medical Principles and Practice 21(1): 24-29.

Reed, L.J. and Muench, H. 1938. A simple method of estimating fifty percent endpoints. American Journal of Hygiene 27(3): 493-497.

Rengpipat, S., Rukpratanporn, S., Piyatiratitivorakul, S. and Menasaveta, P. 2000. Immunity enhancement in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) by a probiont bacterium (Bacillus S11). Aquaculture 191(4): 271-288.

Santos, A.R., Filho, V.C., Yunes, R.A. and Calixto, J.B. 1995. Analysis of the mechanisms underlying the antinociceptive effect of the extracts of plants from the genus Phyllanthus. General Pharmacology 26(7): 1499-1506.

Shen, B., Yu, J., Wang, S., Chu, E.S.H., Wong, V.W.S., Zhou, X., Lin, G., Sung, J.J.Y. and Chan, H.L.Y. 2008. Phyllanthus urinaria ameliorates the severity of nutritional steatohepatitis both in vitro and in vivo. Hepatology 47(1): 473-483.

Sritunyalucksana, K., Gangnonnigw, W., Archakunakorn, S., Fegan, D. and Flegel, T.W. 2005. Bacterial clearance rate and a new differential hemocyte staining method to assess immunostimulant activity in shrimp. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 63(1): 89-94.

Thawonsuwan, J. and Kongkumnerd, J. 2018. Efficiency of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.) extract on prevention of the EMS caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei Boone, 1931), pp. 320-333. In Proceeding of the Annual Conference on Fisheries 2018. Department of Fisheries, Bangkok.

Tran, L., Nunan, L., Redman, R.M., Mohney, L.L., Pantoja, C.R., Fitzsimmons, K. and Lightner, D.V. 2013. Determination of the infectious nature of the agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome affecting penaeid shrimp. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 105(1): 45-55.

Vanichkul, K., Areechon, N., Kongkathip, N., Srisapoome, P. and Chuchird, N. 2010. Immunological and bactericidal effects of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.) extract in Pacific white shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone). Kasetsart Journal (Natural Science) 44(5): 850-858.

Vogt, G. and Quinitio, E.T. 1994. Accumulation and excretion of metal granules in the prawn, Penaeus monodon, exposed to water-borne copper, lead, iron and calcium. Aquatic Toxicology 28(3-4): 223-241.

Wang, M, Cheng, H., Li, Y., Meng, L., Zhao, G. and Mai, K. 1995. Herbs of the genus Phyllanthus in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B: observations with three preparations from different geographic sites. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 126(4): 350-352.

Wang, Y., Liang, J.P., Duan, Y.F., Niu, J., Wang, J. and Huang, Z. 2017. Effects of dietary Rhodiola rosea on growth, body composition and antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under normal conditions and combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite. Aquaculture Nutrition 23(3): 548-559.

Wu, C.C., Chang, Y.P., Wang, J.J., Liu, C.H., Wong, S.L., Jiang, C.M. and Hsieh, S.L. 2015. Dietary administration of Gynura bicolor (Roxb. Willd.) DC water extract enhances immune response and survival rate against Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus in white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei. Fish and Shellfish Immunology 42(1): 25-33.

Wu, Y.S., Lee, M.C., Huang, C.T., Kung, T.C., Huang, C.Y. and Nan, F.H. 2017. Effects of traditional medical herbs “minor bupleurum decoction” on the non-specific immune responses of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Fish and Shellfish Immunology 64(1): 218-225.

Zhang, J., Liu, Y.J., Tian, L.X., Yang, H.J., Liang, G.Y., Yue, Y.R. and Xu, D.H. 2013. Effects of dietary astaxanthin on growth, antioxidant capacity and gene expression in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture Nutrition 19(6): 917-927.

Zhou, Q.C., Wang, Y.L., Wang, H.L. and Tan, B.P. 2013. Dietary threonine requirements of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture 392-395: 142-147.