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The objective of this experiment was to study the possibility of benzene formation at different
conditions used in pasteurized 25% orange juice production and storage : benzoate or ascorbic acid alone,
benzoate and ascorbic acid together, pH, heating temperature and time, storage conditions(temperature, time
and light exposure),metal ions and chelating agents were studied to determine how high of benzene could
be formed if starting from one optimum condition for benzene formation until all conditions are optimized
then we will know what factors play a major role to reduce benzene level within safety limit . An addition
of 200 ppm sodium benzoate and 120 ppm ascorbic acid to 25% orange juice, pH 3.7, pasteurized at 100
OC 10 min, stored at 30 OC 24 hrs., did not induce benzene formation. The amount of benzene increased
from 0 at pH 3.7 (commercial practice) to 5.6 ppb at pH 2. Increased processing temperature from 90 OC to
100 OC for 20 minutes, found benzene increased from 0 to 8.82 ppb and processing time from 10 to 20
minutes at 100 OC, found benzene increased from 5.32 to 8.82 ppb. Higher storage temperature caused
more benzene formation than longer storage time. Light exposure did not increase benzene formation
. Benzene formation in product added only sodium benzoate or ascorbic acid was less than sodium benzoate
together with ascorbic acid (stored at 45 OC). The addition of chelating agent (disodium EDTA and sodium
hexametaphosphate, SHMP) can decrease benzene formation.
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